EXP Chapter 4
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"remember" is associated with _____ tasks
"know" is associated with ______ tasks
the memories we have of our own life.
______ is not associated with any individual particular
neurocognitive system in the way that episodic and semantic memory are.
______ usually affects only episodic memory and
not semantic memory
who suffered brain damage in accident? No loss of semantic memory; complete damage to episodic memory.
learn normally (semantic), but deficits in remembering personal past.
Who hypothesized that two separate systems support these different kinds of memories (semantic and episodic)
the neurocognitive memory system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information concerning knowledge of the world
neurocognitive memory system that encodes, stores, and retrieves memories of our personal individual experiences.
HERA stands for :
(Hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry)
______ was more involved in the
retrieval of information from semantic memory
left prefrontal cortex
____is more involved in the retrieval of episodic memory.
Right pre-frontal cortex
_____ more involved in encoding into episodic memory.
Left pre-frontal lobe
is the process of how we activated info from long-term memory and access it when we need it.
Refers to the learning process
how we store information when it is not currently in use
Contends that most natural learning is incidental as opposed to intentional.
Craik and Lockhart's levels of processing
means that people encode information not by actively trying to remember but rather as by-product of perceiving and understanding the world.
Means that people actively engage in learning information beccause they know that their memories may be tested.
Who gave participants orienting tasks. Some of
these tasks asked participants to attend to shallow aspects of stimuli; others to deep aspects of stimuli.
Craik and Tulving
Do the words rhyme or not?
figuring out the intentions and emotions of
characters in a Shakespeare play is an example of what type of processing?
maintenance rehearsal leads to what type of processing?
Elaborative processing leads to ______ processing
are a product of how strongly encoded those items were. What produces more strongly encoded item is
deeper level of processing
one of the best ways to enforce coding for meaning is to have participants evaluate to-be-remembered items in terms of its value to natural survival.
refers to the fact that memory is better when we generate associations ourselves than when we simply read or see them.
the advantage in memory that distinctive items have over less distinctive items.
Von Restorff effect
refers to all information present in the memory system.
refers to that part of our stored memories that we
can retrieve under the present conditions.
We use information present in our current environment, to trigger our memories of past events.
The participants are asked to to learn under two conditions.
half of each learning condition are tested under the same conditions, the other half are tested under opposite conditions.
Retrieval of information from memory will be maximized when the conditions at retrieval match the conditions at encoding.
memory for unique events from our personal past.
given specific instructions to forget. Induces inhibition of those items.
occurs when you study some of the information in a
set of already-learned information but not all of it.
who developed retrieval of induced intuition?
Michael Anderson and his colleagues
mechanism that actively interferes with and reduces
the likelihood of recall of particular information.
target items from practiced category that were practiced.
target items from practiced category that were unpracticed.
target items from the non-practiced condition.
means that you are more likely to remember events or information that is positive when you are in a positive mood
and more likely to remember events or information that is negative when you are in a negative mood.
Identical experimentally to encoding specificity, but refers to mood states or drug-induced states and learning.
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