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  1. What are the four "tissue" types that cells are organized into?
    epithelial, connective, muscle, nerve
  2. (Informational) What are some generalizations of epithelial cells?
    Function as boundary (seperating compartments), cells are contiguous and form continous sheets, avascular (could compromise thier function)
  3. What characteristic is of epithelial cells that live in harsh environment?
    Self-renewal. Because these cells need to divide and differentiate to compensate for these loses (think of listerine and lost of epi. cells)

    Self renewal process = stem cell --> divides in 2 cells (one becomes epithelial cell and one remains stem cell)
  4. One layer of epithelail cells =? More than one layer of epithelial cells =?
    • 1. Simple
    • 2. Stratified (or pseudostratified)
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    E = Simple Squamous 
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    Simple cubiodal
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    simple columnar
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    pseudostratified columnar

    **usually ciliated and all cells rest on basement membrane
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    Stratified squamous non-cornified

    **cornified = no nucleus
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    Stratified squamous cornified
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    stratified squamous non-cornified
  12. Microvilli are made from what? What is there function?
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  13. Stereocilia are based on what type of material? What are they?
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  14. Cila are based on what type of material?
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    • **MV = microvilli, arrow is pointing to cilia
  15. Three types of cell-cell junctions?
    • 1. tight or occluding junctions 
    • 2. anchoring junctions
    • 3. communicating junctions
  16. what are occluding junctions functions and made up of?
    • Function: near apical side but on lateral side and functions
    • 1. to keep things from lumen from getting into epithelial cell 
    • 2. to prevent passage of molecules between cells

    ocludin and claudin are transmembrane proteins that create tight jxn
  17. Two types of anchoring junctions? Differences similarities?
    • 1. Adheren junction: actin-based, continuous belt, uses cadherin adhesion protein
    • 2. Desomosome: intermediate filament-based (i.e. keratin), spot-weld plaque (achoring protein),  has cadherin family protein between spot-weld plaques

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    • **On the EM: Dark bars are plaques (anchoring proteins), long horizontal lines are IF, space inb/w plauques are cadherin family adhesion protein
  18. Function of anchoring junctions? Things common to anchoring junctions?
    1. transmit stress from cells

    • 2.
    • A) transmembrane protein (cadheren family)
    • B) cytoskeletal filament (either actin or IF [i.e. keratin])
    • C) intracellular anchor proteins
  19. What is a gap (communicating) junction made from? Function?
    Made up of 6 connexins, combined laterally to make up connexons. 

    They let small molecules through.
  20. Order of cell-cell communication junctions?
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  21. What is a hemidesmosome? What transmembrane adhesion protein and basal lamina protein does it use? Function?
    • 1. Attaches the basal side of epithelial cell to basal lamina (ECM)
    • 2. Uses integrin adhesion transmembrane protein (unlike cadheren in desmosomes) and laminin to connect to basal membrane and IF (like desmosomes) 
  22. 1 Connect lateral edges of cells
    2 Connect basal side of cell to ECM
    3 Connect to IF
    4 Connect to Actin
    5 Based of Connexins and Connexons
    6 Use integrin/laminin
    • 1. tight, anchoring (desmosomes, adheren jxn), gap
    • 2. hemidesmosomes
    • 3. desmosomes and hemidesmosomes
    • 4. Adheren junction (not all anchoring junctions since desmosomes are part of it)
    • 5. Gap (communicating) Junctions
    • 6. Hemidesmosomes
  23. Claudin?
    transmembrane protein of tight (occluding jxn)
  24. Occludin?
    transmembrane protein of tight (occluding jxn)
  25. Cadherin?
    transmembrane protein in anchroing jxns (desmos., and adherein jxn)
  26. Integrin?
    transmembrane protein of hemidesmosomes
  27. Laminin?
    protein of hemidesmosomes that connects to basal lamina
  28. Connexon?
    Connexins that form to create gap junction to allow small molecules to pass through
  29. Endocrine vs. exocrine glands?
    Endocrine: secrete into ductless blood stream

    Exocrine: secrete from gland into duct until it hits circulation

    • Picture of exocrine below
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  30. Apocrine vs. holocrine vs. merocrine glands are each an example of what type of mode of cellular secreting product? Definition of each?
    1. Exocrine glands

    Apocrine: "Apex" of the cell comes off with material being secreted

    Holocine: "whole" cell comes off duct with secretory product 

    Merocrine: "mirror" the secretory product is given off with no disruption of cell (exocytosis)
  31. Exocrine glands can be categorized into 2 groups? One groups is composed of two other groups?
    • 1. Unicellular
    • 2. Multicellular (simple, compound)

    • simple: no branches, one duct
    • compound: one main duct branches out into other ducts
  32. metaplasia?
    A switch between one type of differentiated cell with another. Can bring a dividing cell one step closer to metastatic cancer
Card Set:
2012-09-13 03:28:13

med school
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