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  1. What is microbiology Microbiology
    study of small living things.
  2. What are Microbes, and where do they exist?
    independent life forms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, and exist free living in the environment, or colonize a host.
  3. Microbes and metabolism
    they are metaboliccaly diverse, and improtant in NUTRIENT cycling,  ex huge in the soil and water
  4. Chemotroph vs phototroph
    chemotrophs- get energy from chemicals, phototrophs get energy from light.
  5. Origin of life
    microbes are the oldest forms of life on Earth and they created an oxygenated atmosphere.
  6. Bacteria can act as a symbiont.
    examples are other microbes, plants, invertebrates, insects, animals (Ruminants)
  7. Structure of major Bacterial components.
    • Cytoplamic membrane
    • Flagella
    • Pilli
    • Capsule
    • Cell wall
    •    -Peptidoglycan
    •    -Gram + vs Gram - bacteria
    •    -lipolosyccharide
  8. Procaryotes vs Eucaryotes
    • SIZE (.1-3 micro meter) smaller than eukaryotes 5micro metter
    • NO membrane bound organnells
    • lack nucleus, mitochondria, ER, golgin ect.
  9. Genomes Bacterial vs Eukaryotik
    • Bacterial
    •   -haploid (no diploid)
    •   -one chromosome of dbl stranded, super-coiled circular DNA
    •   -no nuclear membrane
    •   -free DNA in cytoplasm (reion is called nucleoid)
    •   -organized in 40-50 coiled loops 
  10. Plasmids
    • small circular DNA that is extra chromosomal DNA
    • may confer antibiotic resistance
    • toxicity/virulenc genes
    • asexual
  11. Bacterial genes
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