Bio Exam 1

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Bio Exam 1
2012-09-11 16:56:06

Ch 1 and 2
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  1. What are the main characteristics of life?
    Cells, reproduce, energy for metabolism, growth, organization, homeostasis, respond to the environment, adaptation
  2. What are the steps of the scientific method?
    Observe, form hypothesis, design an experiment, analyze data, form a conclusion
  3. What are the most common elements in living things?
    CHNOPS (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur
  4. What is an atom?
    Smallest piece of matter that still has the properties of elements
  5. What is an element?
    Substances that cannot be broken down to simpler substances with different properties
  6. What are the properties of electrons?
    Negative charge and no mass
  7. What are the properties of neutrons?
    No charge and a mass of 1
  8. What are properties of protons?
    Positive charge and mass of 1
  9. What is atomic number?
    Number of protons
  10. What is mass number?
    Number of protons + number of neutrons
  11. What is an ionic bond?
    Force of attraction between opposit charges of ions that result in a neutral compound
  12. What is a covalent bond?
    Force of attractions between atom sharing electrons that results in a molecule
  13. What is a non-polar substance?
    Electrons are shared equally
  14. What is a polar substance?
    Electrons are shared unequally (one end slightly negative and one end slightly positive)
  15. What is a hydrogen bond?
    Molecule with polar covalent bonds slightly positive hydrogen atom attracts a slightly negative atom of another molecule
  16. What is C-14 dating?
    A way of determining the age of certain archeological artifacts of a biological origin up to about 50,000 years old...Undergoes radioactive decay, decreasing in dead things over time
  17. What is radiation?
    Larger isotopes can be unstable and undergo radioactive decay, splitting the atom into a new element and releasing energy and subatomic articles
  18. What is heaat capacity?
    Water must gain or lose a relatively large amount of energy for its temperature to change
  19. What is a buffer?
    A soultion that helps prevent PH change
  20. What is an isotope?
    Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons; have same properties
  21. What is an acid?
    Contains atleast one hydrogen atom that can be removed when the acid is dissolved in water (citric acid, sulfric acid, soda beer vineagr)
  22. What is a base?
    A substance that forms hydroxide ions (ammonia, stomach antiacids, oven cleaner, baking soda)
  23. What is ATP?
    Adenosine Triphosphate (single nucleotide with three phosphate currency of cell)
  24. What is hydrolysis?
    Cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water
  25. What is a polymer?
    Many subunits
  26. What is a monomer?
    One subunit
  27. What is an amino acid?
    Molecules made from amine and carboxylic acid
  28. What is hydrophobic?
    Has a "tail" and iis water fearing because it is nonpolar
  29. What is hydrophilic?
    Has a "head" and is water loving because it is polar
  30. What are organic compunds?
    Conatains carbons and make up living things
  31. What are lipids and what do they do?
    Fatty acids, glycerol, fats and oils, phospholipids, steroids, waxes (stores energy)
  32. What are nucleic acids and what do they do?
    DNA, RNA, ATP (composed of nucleotides, sugar, phosphate, N-containing base....stores genetic information, makes proteins)
  33. What are proteins and what do they do?
    Polymers of amino acids (structural, motion and enzymes)
  34. What are carbohydrates and what do they do?
    Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides (supplies energy)
  35. What are the 4 types of lipids?
    Fatty acids (chain of carbon with carboxyl groups) Glycerol (has three -OH groups) Fats and Oils (3 fatty acids and glycerol.....long term energy storage) Phospholipids (Consist of hydrophilic and hydrophobic) Steriods (fused carbon structures) Waxes