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What are the attributes of Ferromagnesian silicates?
- Dark and Heavy.
- High in Iron and Magnesium
What are the attributes of Nonferromagnesian silicates?
- Light in color and weight
- Low in Iron and Magnesium
Name the solid, liquid, and gas portions of magma.
- Solid- a hardened silicate mineral mix (Si02)
- Liquid- melt
- Gas- volatiles (10% CO2, 80% H20)
how do we classify igneous rocks?
- Texture- size,shape, and arrangment of the crystals
- Composition- the mineral makeup of the rock
Identify the 2 types of igneous rocks
- Intrusive(plutonic)-forms underground, has large(phaneritic) crystals, cools slowly
- Extrusive(volcanic)-forms above ground, as small(aphanitic) crystals, cools fast
what are the 5 textures of igneous rocks
- Glassy-no crystals
- Aphanitic-small crystals
- Phaneritic-large crystals
- Porphryitic-small and large crystals
- Pyroclastic-composed of volcanic fragments
what are the 2 types of magma
and how do they vary
- -high silica
- -high viscosity(thick)
- -low temp
- -nonferromagnesian silicates
- -low silica
- -low viscosity(fluid)
- -high temp
- -ferromagnesian silicates
define shield volcano
- Composed of fluid lava flows with gently sloping sides.
define cinder cone volcano
- Composed of tephra or pyroclastic materials(dust, ash, cinder, bombs)
define composite volcano
- Larger than cinder cone
- Thick explosive magma
- Composed of alternating lava tephra layers
- Andesitic to Granitic
What is Nuee Ardente?
- a glowing avalanche also known as ash flow
- it looks like a big cloud
what eruptions are associated with convergent plate boundaries?
Andesitic and Granitic
how are basaltic or mafic magmas produced?
- partial melting of upper mantle(asthenosphere)
- divergent plate boundaries and hotspots
how are andesitic/granitic magmas produced?
- partial melting of oceanic crust and lithosphere at subduction zones
- convergent plate boundaries
What are the 5 intrusive rock bodies (plutons)
- Batholith-huge granitic rocks often mountain bases
- Stock-smaller than batholith
- Dike- cuts through rock layers
- Sills- injected between rock layers
- Lacolith- mushroom shaped rock(pine valley)
what do you call underwater lava
what are the hexagonal pillars called
what are the 2 types of flow
- pahoehoe- smooth, makes rope lava
- aa- rough hurts to walk on, makes you say ah ah
what is partial melting
- the felsic minerals go first
- its also called decompressional
- its the source of basaltic magma
what 3 things cause volcanoes
- convergent plates-composite, andesitic,granitic
- divergent plates-shield/cindercone, basaltic
- hotspot-shield, basaltic
- A. Abyssal plain
- B. Continental shelf
- C. Continental slope
- D. Shelf break
- E. Continental rise
- F. Oceanic crust
- G. Deep-sea fan