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2012-09-11 16:59:47
Chapter Two

Atoms, Molecules, Ions
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  1. Robert Boyle
    provided evidence for the atoms and defiend the nature of an element
  2. Joseph Priestley
    isolated oxygen gas from decomp of mercury oxide
  3. Antoine Lavoisier
    showed that mass of products is exactly equal to the mass of reactants
  4. Law of Mass Conservation
    Mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions
  5. Law of Definite Proportions
    Different samples f a pure chemical substance always contain the same proportion of elements by mass
  6. by mass, water is __.
    • 88.8% oxygen
    • 11.2% hydrogen
  7. John Dalton
    proposed explanations for the laws of mass conservation adn definite proportions
  8. Dalton's Postulates
    • I. Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms.
    • II. Each element is characterized by the mass of its atoms. Atoms of the same element have the same amss, but atoms of different elements have differnet masses.
    • III. Chemical combination of elemetns to make differnet substances occurs when atoms join together in small whole-number ratios.
    • IV. Chemical reactions only rearrange the way that atoms are combined; the atoms themselves are unchanged.
  9. Law of Multiple Proportions
    ex: Nitrogen and oxygen combine to form NO and NO2.
    In NO, the N:O mass ratio is __.
    In NO2, the N:O mass ratio is __.
    • When two elements form two different compounds, the mass ratios are related by small whole numbers
    • 7:8
    • 7:16
  10. What did the Cathode-Ray tube by Thomson propose?
    • that cathode rays must consist of timy - charged particles
    • (electrons)
  11. Deflection of electron depends on three factors:
    1) ?
    2) ?
    3) ?
    • 1) Strength of electric or magnetic field
    • 2) Size of negative charge on electron
    • 3) Mass of the electron
  12. What did the Oil Drop Experimetn by Millikan determine?
    the mass of an electron
  13. Explain the Oil Drop Experiment?
    • Applied a voltage to oppose the downward fall of charged drops and suspend them
    • voltage on plates place a charge on each oil drop, and are suspended between two electrically charged plates
    • The experiment calculated the electrons' mass
  14. What did Rutherford discover? How?
    • nucleus
    • irradicated gold foil with a beam of alpha particles to search for positively charged particles
  15. Mass #
    # of protons plus neutrons
  16. Atomic #
    # of protons or electrons
  17. Isotopes
    What are the three
    • atoms with identical atomic #s, but different mass numbers
    • Protium
    • Deuterium
    • Tritium
  18. Protium
    • one proton and no neutrons
    • mass #= 1
  19. Deuterium
    • one proton/ one neutron
    • mass #= 2
  20. Tritium
    • one proton and two neutrons
    • mass number= 3
  21. Average Isotopic Mass
    weighted avg. of teh isotopic masses of an element's naturally occurring isotopes
  22. Atomic mass
    a weighted average of the isotopic masses of an elemetn's naturally occurring isotopes