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2012-09-11 17:05:11

Biology 120 Chapter 4 Terms
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  1. cell wall
    A relatively rigid structure that encloses cells of plants, fungi, many protists, and most prokaryotes, and which gives these cells their shape and limits their expansion in hypotonic media.
  2. Plasmodesmata
    plasma membrane´┐Żlined channels of adjacent plant cells that allow water, ions, small molecules, hormones, and even some RNA and protein molecules to move between connected cells cell wall. This allows energy (sugars) to be shared and hormones to travel
  3. plasma membrane
    The membrane that surrounds the cell, regulating the entry and exit of molecules and ions. Every cell has a plasma membrane.
  4. cytosol
    The fluid portion of the cytoplasm, excluding organelles and other solids.
  5. desmotubule
  6. plastid
    A class of plant cell organelles that includes the chloroplast, which houses biochemical pathways for photosynthesis.
    a minute cytoplasmic body from which a plastid is formed
  8. chloroplast
    An organelle bounded by a double membrane containing the enzymes and pigmentst hat perform photosynthesis. Chloroplasts occur only in eukaryotes.
  9. stroma
    The fluid contents of an organelle such as a chloroplast or mitochondrion.
  10. thylakoid
    A flattened sac within a chloroplast. Thylakoid membranes contain all of the chlorophyll in a plant, in addition to the electron carriers of photophosphorylation. Thylakoids stack to form grana
  11. Granum
    one of the lamellar stacks of chlorophyll-containing material in plant chloroplasts
  12. chlorophyll
    Any of several green pigments associated with chloroplasts or with certain bacterial membranes; responsible for trapping light energy for photosynthesis.
  13. carotenoid
    A yellow, orange, or red lipid pigment commonly found as an accessory pigment in photosynthesis; also found in fungi.
  14. carotenes
    any of several orange or red crystalline hydrocarbon pigments (as C40H56) that occur in the chromoplasts of plants and in the fatty tissues of plant-eating animals and are convertible to vitamin A
  15. Xanthophyll
    any of several neutral yellow to orange carotenoid pigments that are oxygen derivatives of carotenes; especially : lutein
  16. Lutein
    an orange xanthophyll C40H56O2 occurring in plants usually with carotenes and chlorophylls and in animal fat, egg yolk, and the corpus luteum
  17. Chromoplast
    a colored plastid usually containing red or yellow pigment (as carotene)
  18. Leucoplast
    A colorless plastid in the cytoplasm of plant cells around which starch collects
  19. mitochondrion
    An organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, the respiratory chain, and oxidative phosphorylation
  20. Cristae
    One of the inward projections or folds of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion.
  21. Dictyosomes
    The Golgi apparatus in plant cells.
  22. endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
    A system of membranous tubes and flattened sacs found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes. Exists in two forms: rough ER, studded with ribosomes; and smooth ER, lacking ribosomes.
  23. ribosome
    A small particle in the cell that is the site of protein synthesis
  24. peroxisome (Microbodies)
    An organelle that houses reactions in which toxic peroxides are formed and then converted to water
  25. glyoxysome
    An organelle found in plants, in which stored lipids are converted to carbohydrates
  26. cytoskeleton
    The network of microtubules and microfilaments that gives a eukaryotic cell its shape and its capacity to arrange its organelles and to move.
  27. microtubules
    Tubular structures found in centrioles, spindle apparatus, cilia, flagella, and cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. These tubules play roles in the motion and maintenance of shape of eukaryotic cells.
  28. microfilament
    In eukaryotic cells, a fibrous structure made up of actin monomers. Microfilaments play roles in the cytoskeleton, in cell movement, and in muscle contraction.
  29. intermediate filaments
    Components of the cytoskeleton whose diameters fall between those of the larger microtubules and those of the smaller microfilaments.
  30. vacuole
    Membrane-enclosed organelle in plant cells that can function for storage, water concentration for turgor, or hydrolysis of stored macromolecules.
  31. tonoplast
    The membrane of the plant central vacuole.
  32. Anthocyanin
    Any of various water-soluble pigments that impart to flowers and other plant parts colors ranging from violet and blue to most shades of red.
  33. nucleus
    (1) In cells, the centrally located compartment of eukaryotic cells that is bounded by a double membrane and contains the chromosomes. (2) In the brain, an identifiable group of neurons that share common characteristics or functions.
  34. Nuclear Envelope
    The double-layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. The nuclear envelope has pores that allow the passage of materials into and out of the nucleus. Also called nuclear membrane.
  35. Nucleoplasm
    The protoplasm of a cell nucleus. Also called karyoplasm.
  36. Karyolymph
    The colorless, liquid component of the cell nucleus
  37. nucleolus
    A small, generally spherical body found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. The site of synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
  38. chromatin
    The nucleic acid´┐Żprotein complex that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes.