What type of environments do audiologist practice in?
1) services related to diagnosis and rehabilitation in hospitals, public and private clinics, university clinics and other settings where health care is providedd
2) private audiology practices
3) educational institutions
4) industrial settings
5) military settings
What training or schooling does it take to become an Audiologist?
It takes 4 years leading to a doctorate in audiology (Au.D.); it is a combination of coursework and clinical experiences
What are the professional requirements?
Au.D. (degree); a state licensure; passing score on PRAXIS national exam; certification by ASHA or AAA; there are specialty certifications such as pediatric specialty certification in audiology; a Ph.D in audiology
What type of professionals might an audiologist interact with?
Physicians; SLPs, Educators, Nurses, and rehabilitation specialists
What are some common audiology terminology?
Hearing impairment, hearing loss, deaf, hard of hearing, hearing disability/ hearing handicap, and deaf culture
What is the incidence of hearing loss?
Between 30 and 35 million people in the United Staes have hearing impairment.
What are some important factors in hearing loss?
age of onset, age of identification, and age of treatment
How is a hearing loss managed?
Medical treatment, devices, rehabilitation therapy, and support groups
What are the names of the ossicles?
Malleus (hammer), Incus (anvil), and Stapes (stirrup)
A long process that connects the malleus to the tympanic membrane is called?
The point of attachment can be seen through the tympanic membrane and is called what?
What is the head of the malleus is connected to?
The incus is attached to the what?
Stabes by a ligament
The smallest bone in the body and is shaped like a stirrup
The footplate of the stapes is attached to what?
The "bridge the gap" between the outer ear where the sound travels through air and the inner ear where the sound travels through liquid
Why are ossicles designed the way that they are?
Because the fluid in the inner ear is harder for sound waves to move than it is for sound waves to move the air in the outer ear
The ossicles are also held in place by which two muscles?
The stapedius muscles and the tensor tympani muscle
The smallest muscle in the body and attaches to the head of the stapes
The stapedius muscle
Connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx; 36mm long in an adult and is partly bony and partly cartilaginous; provides aeration of the middle ear; allows for pressure equalization of the middle ear space and the ambient pressure; abnormal function can cause middle ear problems
A bundle of fibers that uses chemical and electrical signals to transmit sensory and motor information from one body part to another
What sends signals to the brain and also sends signals from the brain back out to the cochlea?
the auditory-vestibulary nerve
Auditory nerve fiber signals stimulate cells in a structure called the brainstem, specifically in a structure the brainstem that is called the _________?
Cells in the cochlear nucleus then send signals to other structures in the brain such as ______________? They are very important in our ability to localize sound in space because they allow comparison of information coming in from the two ears.
Differences in the time of arrival of a sound to the two ears are called ____________?
interaural time difference (ITDs)
Differences in the magnitude of the sound to the two ears are called ___________?
interaural level differences (ILDs)
The smallest separation between two sequential sounds that can be detected is called?
"minimum audible angle"
In what position can we actually take advantage of the different ways sounds strike the pinna?
The superior olives send signals along a pathway called the _________ to another structure further "upstream" called the __________.
the lateral lemniscus; inferior colliculus
The neurons in the inferior colliculcus sends signals onward to the _______________.
medial geniculate nucleus (MGN)
The cells is the medial geniculate nucleus send signals to specific areas on the surface of the brain called?
The systematic oganization within an auditory structure on the basis of characteristic frequency.
The term that refers to hearing with two ears.
The term that refers to dectection of sound with only one ear.
The tearm that refers to when the sound to the two ears is different.
The gravity recpetors consist of two chambers in the membranous labyrinth.
Utricle and sacccule
What type of cells are within the utricle and saccule?
The utricle is more sensitive to what type of acceleration? The saccule is more sensitive to what type of acceleration?
Utricle- horizontal; Saccule- vertical
The utricle and saccule are continuous with three _____________ that detect angular (rotational) acceleration in any direction.
Saccle, utricle, and semicircular canals are collectively called what?
The inner ear consists of what?
semicircular canals, the vestibule, and the cochlea
A cavity in the middle of the bony labyrinth in the inner ear.
contains the sensory cells for hearing and is a spiral structure encased in the bony labyrinth; like a snail shell and contains approximately 2 ½ turns; the oval window is at its base and is the location of the footplate of the stapes; mechnical energy becomes converted into electrical signals that can be processed in the brain
The _______________ divides the cochlea into two chambers or (___________)
basilar membrane; (scalae)
The two scalae are filled with fluid called _________ and are connected at the apical end with a small opening called the ___________.
The chamber above the basilar membrane is called the __________________.
The chamber below the basilar membrane is called the ________________.
Between the Scala Vestibuli and the Scala Tympani is a fluid filled channel called __________.
The cochlear duct
The cochlear duct is also called the _______________ and runs the entire length of the cochlea.
The cochlear duct is separated from the Scala Tympani by a membrane called the ____________.
The cochlear duct is separated from the Scala Vestibuli by a membrane called the __________________.
The cochlear duct contains a different fluid called _______.
The _________________ is located along the lateral wall and is important in the maintenance of the endolymph in the cochlear duct.
a structure in the cochlea that rests on the internal surface of the basilar membrane and is the primary structure involved in the perception of sound; named after anatomist Alfonso; supported by pillars which lean toward each other and form a triangular shaped tunnel called the tunnel of _________ and it is filled with Cortilymph
the organ of Corti
How many inner hair cells are there in a human Organ of Corti?
about 3500 inner hair cells
How many outer hair cells are there in a human Organ of Corti?
12,000 outer hair cells
Emerging from each hair cell are tiny hair shaped structures and these structures are known as ___________ and are different lengths within a single cells.
As a result of outer hair cell motility, there are sounds that originate in the cochlea and can be recorded in the external canal. The sounds are called _______________ and are measured by audiologists during hearing evaluations.
Electrically stimulating the cochlea has been used to enable people who are deaf to detect sound with the use of a _________________.