Etruscan and Roman Art (part 1)

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    • Fibula with Orientalizing Lions
    • Era: Early Etruscan, 650-640 BCE
    • Location: Regolini-Galasi Tomb, Cerveteri, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • repousse technique for upper portion
    • granulation (bottom part) - fusing of tiny metal balls or granuals to the metal's surface
    • so large it is almost a breast plate
    • found covering a deceased woman's chest
    • gold circles hanging off ends were either earings or bracelets
    • used as a display of wealth 
    • 5 lions in a walking stance, borrowed from Orientalizing style but is not mythological
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    • Etruscan Temple Plan
    • Era: Early Etruscan
    • Techniques:
    • walls made of sun-baked bricks - generally very strong
    • gable roofed temple
    • wooden columns and roof
    • double row of columns in front
    • only one entrance with steps leading up to it
    • based on a high podium
    • columns only on front porch
    • deep front porch - occupied half the podium
    • columns similar to Doric but they are wooden, unfluted, and sit on a base - Tuscan columns
    • Tuscan columns provided a lightness to the overall structure
    • widely spaced columns
    • 3 cellas - one for each major god (Tinia, Uni, and Menrva = Zeus, Hera, and Athena)
    • rooptop sculpture along the roof lines
    • statuary made of terracotta
    • ornate home for the grand statues of the Etruscan gods
    • Roman architect, Vitruvius, wrote a treatise on Etruscan architecture
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    • Apollo (Apulu)
    • Era: Early Etruscan, 510 BCE
    • Location: Veii
    • Techniques:
    • painted terracotta
    • very static
    • paint emphasized ripling folds of garment
    • stylized folds
    • less natural, swelling contours
    • animated face with slight smile
    • eyes not as clear
    • on foot forward and the other back, firmly planted on the ground but no shift in body weight
    • stylized musculature
    • Volcua was the believed artist
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    • Matrimonial Sarcophagus
    • Era: Early Etruscan, 520 BCE
    • Location: Cerveteri, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • pained terracotta
    • cast in 4 sections
    • stylized hair 
    • enigmatic smiles
    • eyes not clearly defined
    • legs are not as defined - summerily modeled - transition to torso is unnatural
    • husband and wife are lying on a banquet couch
    • bodies not actually inside - Etruscans believed in cremation - ashes inside sarcophagus
    • buried in simple graves with either a stele or a statue
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    • Necropolis at Cerveteri (Caere)
    • Era: Early Etruscan, 5-4th century BCE
    • Location: Cerveteri, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • family mausoleums
    • tombuli are the mounds
    • directly decsendent from the tholos
    • multi-chambered
    • made of tufa - compressed volcanic ash and then covered in dirt and vegeataion
    • constructed in an orderly manner - network of streets
    • far from the city
    • interior is very angular compared to the rounded exterior
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    • Tomb of the Reliefs
    • Era: Early Etruscan, 3rd centruy BCE
    • Location: Cerveteri, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • painted relief sculpture
    • made to look like a home, domestic - for decoration only
    • several generations of one family
    • brightly painted stucco
    • columns and walls covered in relief
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    • Revelers
    • Era: Early Etruscan, 470 BCE
    • Location: Tomb of the Leopards, Tarquinia
    • Techniques:
    • accurate porfile in motion
    • rounded not static figures
    • one flat foot and on raised foot creates motion
    • dark skin - male, light skin - female
    • exaggerated gestures with enlarged hands
    • man on couch holds egg symbolizing regeneration
    • landscape
    • as a generation would die they would add figures
    • graceful figures
    • figures are dancing or playing a musical instrument
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    • Tomb of Hunting and Fishing
    • Era: Early Etruscan
    • Techniques:
    • brightly painted 
    • not a landscape
    • decorative purpose
    • action and nature
    • hunting birds using a sling shot
    • multi-colored rocks similar to Spring Time Fresco
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    • Woman of the Velcha Family
    • Era: Late Etruscan, 4th century BCE
    • Location: Tomb of Orcus, Tarquinia
    • Techniques:
    • foreshortened eye to make a more natural profile
    • hint at a facial expression - lips turned down slightly
    • quiet, classicizing formalism
    • composed and reflective
    • somber theme of suffering and sadness (Romans taking over) - pessimistic look at humanity's fate  
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    • Canopic Urn
    • Era: Late Etruscan, 7th century BCE
    • Location: Chiusi
    • Techniques:
    • made of terracotta
    • molded not carved face
    • portraits in the likeness of the deceased
    • roundedness of the urn emphasizes the vitality of the head
    • blunt and aggressive features accentuated by his wide neck
    • larger face
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    • Mars from Todi (Marvin the Martian)
    • Era: Late Etruscan, 4th century BCE
    • Techniques:
    • made of bronze
    • implied sense of movement - contrived
    • a shift in the hips from side to side not front to back
    • high surface patina
    • inlaid eyes
    • military attire - fitting in with Roman
    • attempting to use Polychightus' proportions but figure has a long wide torso and short legs
    • similar to Greek Late Classical because of disproportioned body
    • would've had a head piece
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    • Capitoline Wolf (She-Wolf)
    • Era: Late Etruscan, 500 BCE
    • Location: Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • larger than life hollow cast bronze
    • 33.5" tall
    • guant ribs and taut powerful legs
    • hair on neck is in rising hackles, standing on end
    • profound renedering of an animal's temper, deep emotional connection
    • supposed to be on a tall poll on a large hill
    • represents the founding of Rome 753 BCE on the Palestine Hill
    • Romulus and Remus abandonned as infants and raised by wolves
    • children added in the Renaissance by Pollaiuolo
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    • Chimera of Arezzo
    • Era: Late Etruscan, 4th century BCE
    • Location: Arezzo, Italy
    • Techniques
    • made of bronze
    • 2'7.5" tall
    • hair around neck standing on end - rising hackles
    • stretched skin over ribs
    • Greek monster - lions head and body with a snake tail and a goat's head on its left side
    • reacting to being attacked
    • possibly part of sculpture group menacing gaze upwards at Bellerophon
    • inspires sympathy through the eyes
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    • Temple of Fortuna Virilis
    • Era: Roman Republic, 75 BCE
    • Location: Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • pseudoperipteral temple - columns in back are engaged
    • built on a high podium with a wide entrance staircase
    • free standing columns in a deep porch
    • made of stucco over stone
    • Ionic columns with more developed double-layered bases
    • Ionic frieze
    • fluted columns
    • Fortuna - Roman god of the harbor
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    • Temple of the "Sibyl" (Vesta)
    • Era: Roman Republic, early 1st century
    • Location: Tivoli
    • Techniques:
    • round building on a high podium
    • one way in - narrow stairs
    • axial alignment
    • corinthean marble columns - taller and thinner, each made of one solid block of marble
    • round cella made of concrete
    • exterior frieze of reathes and garland (symbols of victory) and bull head (inspired by the bucrania of Catal Huyuk)
    • round temples dedicated to female dieties
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    • Head of a Roman Patrician
    • Era: Roman Republic, 75-50 BCE
    • Location: Otricoli, Italy
    • Techniques
    • made of marble 
    • 1'2" tall
    • veristic portrait - super realism
    • makes a statement about the deceased's personality
    • virtues of the Roman Republic - serious, experienced, determined, any loyal to family and state
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    • Portrait of a Roman General
    • Era: Roman Republic, 75-50 BCE
    • Location: Sanctuary of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • 6'2" tall
    • individualized head on a different Greek body
    • covering himself - Roman sense of modesty
    • leaning on his breast plate, cuirass - represents his rank in society and the military
    • stern face
    • might have been a helmet on his head
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    • Denarius with a Portrait of Julius Ceasar
    • Era: Roman Republic, 44 BCE
    • Techniques:
    • made of silver
    • 3/4" diameter
    • receding hairline
    • veristic portraiture
    • sunken cheeks
    • desire of Romans to advertise distinguished family history
    • standard Roman silver coin equivalent to a penny
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    • Atrium of the House of the Silver Wedding
    • Era: Roman Republic, 1st century BCE
    • Location: Pompeii
    • Techniques
    • shallow pool in entrance hall surrounded by 4 columns
    • columns hold up a roof with a hole in the middle of it so that rain water could fill the pool and so that when the water evaporates it acts as a humidifier
    • bedrooms border atrium but they had no windows and only enough space for a small concrete bed
    • single family homes
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    • Samnite House
    • Era: 1st Style - Incrustation, 2nd century BCE
    • Location: Herculaneum
    • Techniques:
    • each panel in a different color or texture
    • polychrome - multicolored
    • dematerializing the wall - adding texture and variety to the walls
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    • Villa Boscoreale 
    • Era: 2nd Style - Archhitectural, 60-20 BCE
    • Location: Near Pompeii
    • Teachniques:
    • attempt at recession into space - lsimilar to one-point perspective of the Renaissance 
    • opening up walls with vistas of Italian towns, marble temples, and colonnaded courtyards
    • painted in columns and piers with shadow
    • no landmarks - painted vignettes
    • painted floor to ceiling
    • replacing wall with imaginary 3D world - as if one is looking out a window
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    • Villa of the Mysteries
    • Era: 2nd Style - Architectural, 50 BCE
    • Location: Pompeii
    • Techniques:
    • high podium
    • painted piers in background denote it as 2nd Style
    • large figures - uncharactistic of 2nd style
    • scenes cross space (at corners)
    • contraposta shift in the figures' natural positions
    • recession into space through overlap
    • individuals, not types
    • Dioysian mystery frieze
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    • Ulysses in the Land of Lestrygonians (Odyssey Landscapes) 
    • Era: 2nd Style - Architectural, late 1st century BCE
    • Techniques:
    • each scene separated by a red and black painted column
    • perspective and recession into space
    •    - size of objects in foreground are larger that objects in background
    •    - saturation of color - colors in foreground are darker and colors in background are more muted 
    •    - atmospheric perspective - objects are sharp in the foreground and blurry in the background
    • has landscape and figuration
    • exterior view with a storyline
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    • Garden Scene
    • Era: 2nd Style - Architectural, 30 BCE
    • Location: House of Livia, Primaporta
    • Techniques:
    • very detailed, precisely painted - different species of foliage can be determined
    • atmospheric pressure
    • landscape
    • vista illusions of the world
    • taken out of architectural setting
    • Livia was the wife of Emperor Augustus
    • 6'7:" tall
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    • Villa at Boscotrecase
    • Era: 3rd Style - Ornate, early 1st century CE
    • Location: Near Pompeii
    • Techniques
    • monochrome panels, mostly red
    • delicate form and colors
    • floating landscapes
    • framed by columnettes with rope hanging between them - maybe even hinting at curtains
    • fantasies not realism
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    • Room 78 of Domus Aurea
    • Era: 4th Style - Intricate, 64-68 CE
    • Location: Golden House, Nero, Rome
    • Techniques:
    • austere creamy white walls
    • monochromatic background filled with nature motifs
    • framed floating landscapes in the middle
    • columns supporting half-pediments
    • columnettes and implied drapery
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    • Ixion Room House of the Vetii
    • Era: 4th Style- Intricate, 1st century CE
    • Locaiton: Pompeii
    • Techniques:
    • garish color combinations
    • painted architecture to separate panels
    • rope hanging on top to resemble curtains
    • no unified cityscape
    • no apparent purpose
    • large white panels with delicate floral framesand floating landscapes
    • larger panels have figuration and are similar to 2nd style
    • lower zone is 1st style
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Etruscan and Roman Art (part 1)
2012-09-15 23:34:59

Etruscan and Roman Art (part 1)
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