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  1. TAXONOMY
    The discipline of biology dealing with the classification of organisms
  2. Carlos Linneaus
    Father of Taxonomy, Developed in the 18th century the classification scheme we are still using today
  3. Explain the groupings of the classifications system. How do these groupings evolutionary relationships?
    • -Domain
    • -Kingdom
    • -Phlum or division class
    • -order
    • -family
    • -genus
    • -species
  4. Criterion used to separate organisms into 3 domains?
    biochemical evidence such as DNA
  5. List and describe 3 domains
    • Arcaea;
    • Unicellular prokaryotes
    • Live in harsh aquatic enviroments that lack oxygen or are too hot, or too acidic for most other organisms.
    • Most primite of earths organisms
    • Thought to be the first cells evolve
    • BACTERIA;
    • unicelluar
    • found almost everywhere
    • EUKAYRA
    • composed of eukaryotic cells
    • includes bothe unicellular multiple organisms
  6. Explain bionominial system of nomenclature
    • Each organism is given a two word name-- its Genus and species
    • Example: the scientific name of humans is Homo(underline) sapiens
  7. Ecology
    the scientic study of interaction of the orgnaism and the enviroment.
  8. Interaction-
    means that activites of organisms are reciprocal withthe enviroment and with other organisms
  9. Enviroment
    surroundings of an organisms. It includes both the biotic and abiotic components
  10. Biotic components-living things, other organisms
    abiotic components-nonliving things such as light, water
  11. Organisms in the enviroment are grouped with populations
    • Population is a group of interbreeding individuals within a defined geographical area.
    • ex:catfish in one pond beling to one poulation and those in another pond belong to another population
  12. Often a population lives with populations of other species to form communites
    • Community consists of all the populations of different species living in a specified, defined area.
    • ex: all of the species within pond, the water lillies..pond comm
  13. Organism within the community not only interact with each ohter but also with the abiotic components to form ecosystems
    • Ecosystem-an ecological unit of geograpy consiting of all the included communites and the abiotic components
    • Biosphere- the sum toal of all the ecosystems on earth.
    • Habitat- place in the ecosytem where an organism lives
    • ex: the habitat of an intestinal parasite in the intestine of the host.
  14. Population density
    • the number of individuals per unit area
    • ex: 50 humans per sq mile; 25 oak trees per acre
    • It is more meaningful than population to the enviroment .
  15. Ecological distution
    It is the spacing of individuals within the habitat
  16. Describe the 3 types of ecological dsitrubution
    • on the basis of availability of resources and competition there are three types of distrubution
    • 1. uniform-organisms of a population are evenly distributed throughout a region
    • 2.clumped
    • characterized by number of individuals clustered in particular locations without a region.
    • 3.random
    • occurs when individuals in a population are spaced at random; that is individuals occur in no discernable pattern throughout a region.
    • ex:distribution of ticks on the forest floor
  17. What determines the rate of population growth
    • Rate of population growth=The difference between the number of individuals entering a population and those leaving a particular time
    • 2 ways individuals enter a populaton are by birth and immigration and 2 ways they leave is by death and emigration.
  18. Describe 2 major types of growth rate curves
    • exponential: its j shaped
    • this population growth over time under ideal conditions.
    • logistic growth curve:
    • it is s shaped
    • Most populations in nature exhibit this type of growth.
  19. distinguish between denisty-dependent mechanisms and density-mechanisms and give examples of each
    • density-dependent mechanisms-selective pressures that vary in intensity as a result of the density of individuals in the population.
    • ex: predation, competition and disease

    • desnsity-independent mechanisms
    • these are factors affecting population growth that are not related to population density.
    • ex: floods, extemes in weather and fire
  20. Ecological niche
    • sometimes described as the role or job of organism in the community. Sum total of all the interactipms pf tje prganism within the enviroment.
    • ex: part of a coyote is that of a predator
  21. INTRAspecific competition
    • occurs between members of the same species.
    • it is over resources and mates. It increases as population density increases.
    • ex: competition among sparrows for nesting space is much greater than competition between sparrows and robins for nesting space.
  22. INTERspecific competition
    • occurs between memebrs of different species. It arises from niche overlap and the more the niches overlap the greater the interspecific competition
    • ex:sunfish and bass in same pond may compete for same kind of insects.
  23. Describe Gause's competition exclusion principle
    • It states that no 2 species can occupy the same niche for an extended period of time. One of the competing species will be excluded.
    • ex:experiment with Paramecium caudatum and Paramecium aurelia.

    • -COROLLARY TO GAUSES PRINCIPLE;
    • if 2 or more species occupy a similar niche, it can be demonstrated that the niche is subdivided so that tthe species can coesxist.
    • ex: mac arthur
  24. Predator-prey interaction
    • INTERspecific competition
    • is reciprocal.
    • That is as the prey population increases so does the predator population and as the prey population decreases so does the predator population.
    • cyclic oscillaion patter
    • ex:canadian lynx and snowshoe hare
  25. symbiosis
    • a relationship between organisms that live in close association
    • 3 types of symbiotic relationships:
    • Paratism
    • the parasite lives on or inside a living host. only parasite benefitted: host is harmed. Can be regarded as a special type of predation
    • ex: tapeworm

    • Commensalism
    • One species benefits from the other relationship; the other is neither helped nor harmed
    • ex: remora, a fish that travels attacked to a shark.
    • Mutualism
    • both organisms benfit from relationship
    • ex: relationship of the trichonympha and termite
  26. a)Description of ecosystems
    b)describe role of energy in ecosystems
    • a)functinal unit in nature.
    • They are characterized by the interaction between the biotic and abiotic compenents.
    • b)describe the role of energy in ecosystems:
    • sustain themselves all ecosystems require a constant input energy. The ultimate source of energy for our planet is solar energy.
  27. describe food chains and food webs
    energy flow through the biotic compnents of the ecosystem. The passage of energy from one oranism to antoher takes place chain
  28. TROPHIC LEVELS
    • 1. primary procedures
    • in most ecosystmes they are the photosyntheric organisms- the plants in terrestrial ecosystems and the algae in aquatic ecosystems.
    • 2.primary consumers
    • the organisms that eath the primary procdures.
    • also described as herbivores
    • ex:caterpillars, cows
    • 3. secondary consumers
    • organisms that eat the primary consumers.also descriobes carnivores
    • ex: coyotes
    • DECOMPOSERS:
    • specialized consumers that are vital to ecosystems/ aquire food molecules from non living matter.
  29. ecological pyramids
    • 3 types of ecologial :
    • 1.pyramids of numbers:
    • shows the number of organisms at each trophic level
    • 2. Pyramids of biomass:
    • shows the mass or weights of all the organisms at each trophic level
    • 3.pyramids of energy
    • shows the energy available at each trophic
  30. 3 components of the circulatory system
    • blood- circulationg connective tissue.
    • blood vessels- tubes that blood flows within
    • heart-muscular pump that generates the pressure to move the blood through tht heart and blood vessels
  31. describe the following components of human blood
    • 2 parts:
    • a)plasma-55% of total blood volume
    • 1. water-90%
    • 2.dissolved solids-10%
    • plasam proteins
    • glucose
    • elecrolytes
    • amino acids
  32. formed elements
    45%
    3 types
    • a)erthrocytes
    • 1.normal counts?4-6 million per mm of blood.
    • 2. structure?mature RBC are nonnucleated
    • 3. Function- main function is to transportation O2 to the cells
    • b)leukocytes
    • 1.5000-1000
    • 2.RBCs nucleated
    • 3.involved witht the bodys defense against disease
    • c)Thrombocyte
    • 1.50000
    • 2.fragment of cells
  33. functions of the following types of blood vessles
    • arteries-bloode vessels that carry blood away from the heart
    • veins-blood vessesl thtat carry blood to the heart
    • capillaries-blood vessels that are the sites of exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and the cells
    • arterioles-smalles arteries in diameter and carry blood into capillary networks.
    • venules- smallest veins in diameter and carry blood away networks
  34. describe the body 3 lines of defense
    • first line- barriers at body surface:
    • these include the intact skin and the mucous membranes at other body surfaces
    • second line-nonspecific responses-
    • these are defenses against a great variety of pathogens and are in place before the danger occurs
    • no prior exposure to the pathogen
    • third li ne-the immune response:
    • involves 2 kinds of WBC's- B and T cells
  35. antigen
    substance that illicits a specific immune response when it is present in the body
  36. anitbody
    specialized protein that is produced in response when it is present in the body
  37. humoral immunity
    • description>?
    • involves production and release into the blood and lymph of antibodies to various antigens
    • effective against what type of antigens?most bacteria

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