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The discipline of biology dealing with the classification of organisms
Father of Taxonomy, Developed in the 18th century the classification scheme we are still using today
Explain the groupings of the classifications system. How do these groupings evolutionary relationships?
- -Phlum or division class
Criterion used to separate organisms into 3 domains?
biochemical evidence such as DNA
List and describe 3 domains
- Unicellular prokaryotes
- Live in harsh aquatic enviroments that lack oxygen or are too hot, or too acidic for most other organisms.
- Most primite of earths organisms
- Thought to be the first cells evolve
- found almost everywhere
- composed of eukaryotic cells
- includes bothe unicellular multiple organisms
Explain bionominial system of nomenclature
- Each organism is given a two word name-- its Genus and species
- Example: the scientific name of humans is Homo(underline) sapiens
the scientic study of interaction of the orgnaism and the enviroment.
means that activites of organisms are reciprocal withthe enviroment and with other organisms
surroundings of an organisms. It includes both the biotic and abiotic components
Biotic components-living things, other organisms
abiotic components-nonliving things such as light, water
Organisms in the enviroment are grouped with populations
- Population is a group of interbreeding individuals within a defined geographical area.
- ex:catfish in one pond beling to one poulation and those in another pond belong to another population
Often a population lives with populations of other species to form communites
- Community consists of all the populations of different species living in a specified, defined area.
- ex: all of the species within pond, the water lillies..pond comm
Organism within the community not only interact with each ohter but also with the abiotic components to form ecosystems
- Ecosystem-an ecological unit of geograpy consiting of all the included communites and the abiotic components
- Biosphere- the sum toal of all the ecosystems on earth.
- Habitat- place in the ecosytem where an organism lives
- ex: the habitat of an intestinal parasite in the intestine of the host.
- the number of individuals per unit area
- ex: 50 humans per sq mile; 25 oak trees per acre
- It is more meaningful than population to the enviroment .
It is the spacing of individuals within the habitat
Describe the 3 types of ecological dsitrubution
- on the basis of availability of resources and competition there are three types of distrubution
- 1. uniform-organisms of a population are evenly distributed throughout a region
- characterized by number of individuals clustered in particular locations without a region.
- occurs when individuals in a population are spaced at random; that is individuals occur in no discernable pattern throughout a region.
- ex:distribution of ticks on the forest floor
What determines the rate of population growth
- Rate of population growth=The difference between the number of individuals entering a population and those leaving a particular time
- 2 ways individuals enter a populaton are by birth and immigration and 2 ways they leave is by death and emigration.
Describe 2 major types of growth rate curves
- exponential: its j shaped
- this population growth over time under ideal conditions.
- logistic growth curve:
- it is s shaped
- Most populations in nature exhibit this type of growth.
distinguish between denisty-dependent mechanisms and density-mechanisms and give examples of each
- density-dependent mechanisms-selective pressures that vary in intensity as a result of the density of individuals in the population.
- ex: predation, competition and disease
- desnsity-independent mechanisms
- these are factors affecting population growth that are not related to population density.
- ex: floods, extemes in weather and fire
- sometimes described as the role or job of organism in the community. Sum total of all the interactipms pf tje prganism within the enviroment.
- ex: part of a coyote is that of a predator
- occurs between members of the same species.
- it is over resources and mates. It increases as population density increases.
- ex: competition among sparrows for nesting space is much greater than competition between sparrows and robins for nesting space.
- occurs between memebrs of different species. It arises from niche overlap and the more the niches overlap the greater the interspecific competition
- ex:sunfish and bass in same pond may compete for same kind of insects.
Describe Gause's competition exclusion principle
- It states that no 2 species can occupy the same niche for an extended period of time. One of the competing species will be excluded.
- ex:experiment with Paramecium caudatum and Paramecium aurelia.
- -COROLLARY TO GAUSES PRINCIPLE;
- if 2 or more species occupy a similar niche, it can be demonstrated that the niche is subdivided so that tthe species can coesxist.
- ex: mac arthur
- INTERspecific competition
- is reciprocal.
- That is as the prey population increases so does the predator population and as the prey population decreases so does the predator population.
- cyclic oscillaion patter
- ex:canadian lynx and snowshoe hare
- a relationship between organisms that live in close association
- 3 types of symbiotic relationships:
- the parasite lives on or inside a living host. only parasite benefitted: host is harmed. Can be regarded as a special type of predation
- ex: tapeworm
- One species benefits from the other relationship; the other is neither helped nor harmed
- ex: remora, a fish that travels attacked to a shark.
- both organisms benfit from relationship
- ex: relationship of the trichonympha and termite
a)Description of ecosystems
b)describe role of energy in ecosystems
- a)functinal unit in nature.
- They are characterized by the interaction between the biotic and abiotic compenents.
- b)describe the role of energy in ecosystems:
- sustain themselves all ecosystems require a constant input energy. The ultimate source of energy for our planet is solar energy.
describe food chains and food webs
energy flow through the biotic compnents of the ecosystem. The passage of energy from one oranism to antoher takes place chain
- 1. primary procedures
- in most ecosystmes they are the photosyntheric organisms- the plants in terrestrial ecosystems and the algae in aquatic ecosystems.
- 2.primary consumers
- the organisms that eath the primary procdures.
- also described as herbivores
- ex:caterpillars, cows
- 3. secondary consumers
- organisms that eat the primary consumers.also descriobes carnivores
- ex: coyotes
- specialized consumers that are vital to ecosystems/ aquire food molecules from non living matter.
- 3 types of ecologial :
- 1.pyramids of numbers:
- shows the number of organisms at each trophic level
- 2. Pyramids of biomass:
- shows the mass or weights of all the organisms at each trophic level
- 3.pyramids of energy
- shows the energy available at each trophic
3 components of the circulatory system
- blood- circulationg connective tissue.
- blood vessels- tubes that blood flows within
- heart-muscular pump that generates the pressure to move the blood through tht heart and blood vessels
describe the following components of human blood
- 2 parts:
- a)plasma-55% of total blood volume
- 1. water-90%
- 2.dissolved solids-10%
- plasam proteins
- amino acids
- 1.normal counts?4-6 million per mm of blood.
- 2. structure?mature RBC are nonnucleated
- 3. Function- main function is to transportation O2 to the cells
- 2.RBCs nucleated
- 3.involved witht the bodys defense against disease
- 2.fragment of cells
functions of the following types of blood vessles
- arteries-bloode vessels that carry blood away from the heart
- veins-blood vessesl thtat carry blood to the heart
- capillaries-blood vessels that are the sites of exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and the cells
- arterioles-smalles arteries in diameter and carry blood into capillary networks.
- venules- smallest veins in diameter and carry blood away networks
describe the body 3 lines of defense
- first line- barriers at body surface:
- these include the intact skin and the mucous membranes at other body surfaces
- second line-nonspecific responses-
- these are defenses against a great variety of pathogens and are in place before the danger occurs
- no prior exposure to the pathogen
- third li ne-the immune response:
- involves 2 kinds of WBC's- B and T cells
substance that illicits a specific immune response when it is present in the body
specialized protein that is produced in response when it is present in the body
- involves production and release into the blood and lymph of antibodies to various antigens
- effective against what type of antigens?most bacteria