Chp 12

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Chp 12
2012-09-12 16:36:52
12 Heart

Chp 12 The Heart
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  1. The heart is located in the
    mediastinum: the thoracic cavity between the lungs
  2. The top of the heart or uppermost part of the heart is called the
  3. The botttom of the heart or the tip of the heart is called the
  4. The heart is enclosed in the
    Pericardial membrane
  5. what are the 3 layers of the Pericardial membrane?
    • fibrous pericardium
    • parietal pericardium
    • visceral pericardium or aka epicardium
  6. outermost layer of the pericardial membrane is called the
    fibrous pericardium
  7. lining the fibrous pericardium whid is betweeen the inner and outer most layer is the
    parietal pericardium
  8. on the surface of the heart muscle which is the inner most layer and is attached to the heart muscle which is actually a part of the heart also known as the epicardium is the
    visceral pericardium
  9. another name for the visceral pericardium is
  10. Between the parietal and visceral pericardial membrane is the
    serous fluid
  11. what is the function of the serous fluid?
    prevents friction as the heart beats.
  12. Tfhe walls of the 4 chambers of the hear are made of cardiac muscle called
  13. The chambers of the heart are lined with
  14. simple squamous epithelium that covers the valves of the heart and continues inot the vessels as their lining (endothelium).
  15. what is the important physical characteristic of the endocardium?
    it is the smoothness to prevent abnormal blood clotting
  16. The upper chambers of the heart are the right and left
    atria or atrium
  17. what are the unique characteristic of heart
    • autorhythomically- automatcially contracts
    • size of the fist
    • cardic muscle
    • beats 100,000x a day
    • average heart beat 70-72% beats a min.
  18. Slow heart beat or beats below 60 is called a
    brady cardia
  19. fast heart beat or beats over 90.
  20. What are the 3 layers of the heart
    • Endocardium
    • myocardium
    • epicardium
  21. The chambers of the heart are lined with a simple squamous epithelium that also covers the valves of the heart and continues to become the endothelium (inside blood vessels) as their lining. This is the inner most part of the heart
  22. The walls of the 4 chambers of the heart are made of cardiac muscle that are similiar  in structure to those of skeletal muscle. This is the middle layer of the heart and is the
  23. The outer layer of the heart and is really part of the pericardium is known as the
  24. what term means Outside or outer is always known as the
  25. This term always means inside or inner is always known as the
  26. What are the  2 upper chambers of the heart
    2 atria (auricle) aka (atrium)-left and right atrium
  27. what are the 2 lower chambers of the heart
    2 ventricles- right and left ventricles
  28. what are the thin walls in the upper chambers of the heart and are separated by a common wall of myocarium called
    interatrial septum
  29. The lower chambers of the heart have thicher walls and is between the R & L ventricles and are separated by
    interventricular septum
  30. The heart starts with ____
    deoxygenated blood in the R atrium the to the R ventricle then to the pulomary veins and to the lungs where it gets oxygen then goes to the L atrium through aorta to the L ventricle which is the biggest part of the heart.
  31. Why is the L ventricle the biggest part of the heart
    Because it has to pump the rest of the blood throughout the body.
  32. What are the 4 valves in the heart
    • Tricuspid valve
    • bicuspid valve
  33. The bicuspid valve is also known as the
    mitral valve
  34. Which valve is located between the R atrium and R ventricle
  35. which valv is located between the L atrium and L ventricle
    bicuspid or aka mitral valve
  36. These 2 large veins return blood from the body to the right atrium these veins are called
    caval veins
  37. This vein carries blood from the upper body
    superior vena cava
  38. this vein carries blood from the lower body
    inferior vena cava
  39. from the right atrium, blood will flow through what valve and into the right ventricle
    right atrioventricular valve (AV) or tricuspid valve
  40. What is the general purpose of the tricuspid valve.
    to prevent back flow of blood
  41. The left atrium receives blood from the lungs by a way of what 4 veins
    pulmonary veins
  42. The blood then goes into the L ventricle through the L atrioventricular valve asls known as the
    bicuspid valve or mitral valve
  43. The purpose of the mitral valve is to
    prevent backflow of blood from the L ventricl to the L atrium
  44. What is another function of the atria
    the productio nof a hormone invloved in blood pressure maintenance
  45. When teh walls of the atria are streched yb increase blood volum or blood pressure the cells produce what
    atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) also called atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH).
  46. betweem the R ventricles and lungs are the
    Semi lunar valve
  47. between the L ventricle and rest of body is the
    aortic semilunar valve or arotic valve
  48. What are the valves made of
    fibrous skeletal (cartlilage) of the heart
  49. when blood flows away from the heart its through the
  50. When blood flows to the heart it is through the
  51. this is the largest blood vessel and largest artery  where the L ventricle pumps blood to the body through what is called the
  52. Blood comes into the heart through what veins
    Superior and inferior vena cava
  53. what does sinus mean
    cavity or hallow space
  54. The hearts coronary vessels are
    • coronary arteries
    • coronary veins
  55. which coronary vessel supply the heart muscle
    coronary arteries
  56. which coronary vessel drains the heart muscles
    coronary veins
  57. Which coronary vessel is the one that gets clogged up by plaque and causes heart attacks
    coronary arteries
  58. which coronary vessel pools together into sinuses (a larger vein where blood collects)
    coronary veins
  59. this term means an alternative pathway for blood
  60. When a heart gets clogged up and the muscle dies from lack of blood and is also commonly known as a heart attack this is called a
    myocardial infarction
  61. the term an area of necrotic (dead) tissue
  62. the term ischemic means
    lack of blood
  63. at the junction of the pulmonary artery trunk and the R ventricle is the
    pulmonary semilunar valve or pulmonary valve
  64. the lower part of the R ventricle are columns of myocardium that helps open the cuspid valves and are attached to valves by connective tissue structure called chordae tendineae this is called
    papillary muscles
  65. strands of fibrous connective tissues that extend from the papillary muscles to the flaps of the tricuspid valve is the
    chordae tendineae
  66. What is the fibrous connective tissue that anchors the outer edges of the valve flaps and keeps the valve openngs from stretching and also separates the myocardium of the atria and ventricles and prevents the contraciton of the atria from reaching the ventricles except by way of normal conduction pathway called
    fibrous skeleton of the heart
  67. what is the sequence of events in one heartbeatand is the simultaneious contractions of the two atria , followed by a fraction of a second later by the simultaneous contraction of the two ventricles
    the cardiac cycle
  68. another term fro contractions is
  69. another term for relaxation is
  70. of the cardiac cycle which contracts 1st
    atrial systole contracts 1st then the ventricle systole contracts. its is want makes the lup dupp sound of the heart
  71. atrial systole is the
    R atrium then L atrium
  72. ventricular systole is the
    R ventricle and L ventricle
  73. serous membrance on the surface of the myocardium
  74. heart muscle: forms the walls of the 4 chambers
  75. endothelium that lines the chambers and covers the valves; smooth to prevent abnormal clotting
  76. received deoxygenated blood from the body by way of the superior and inferior caval veins
    RA or right atrium
  77. Right AV valve; prevents backflow of blood from the RV to the RA when the RV contracts
    tricuspid valve
  78. pumps blood to the lungs by way of the pulmonary artery
    Right ventricle (RV)
  79. Prevents backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery to the RV when the RV relaxes
    Pulmonary semilunar valve
  80. receives oxygenated blood fro mthe lungs by way of the 4 pulmonary veins
    Left atrium (LA)
  81. Left AV valve; prevents backflow of blood from the LV to the LA when the LV contracts
    Mitral valve
  82. Pumps blood to the body by way of the aorta
    Left ventricle (LV)
  83. Prevents backflow of blood from the aorta to the LV when the LV relaxes
    Aortic semilunar valve
  84. in both the RV and LV; prevent inversion of the AV vlaves when the ventricles contract
    paillary muscles and chordae tendineae
  85. fibrous connective tissue that anchors the 4 heart valves, prevents enlargemnt of the valve openings, and electrically insulates the ventricles form the atria
    fibrous skelton of the heart
  86. the conductions of the heart is controlled by what system
    • nervous system
    • 2 nodes: SA node & AV node
  87. what are nodes
    a cluster of nerve cells
  88. This is natural paste maker of the heart and sets the heart rate at 100xs a min =  72 beats a min.
    SA node or sinoatrial node
  89. receives impulses from the SA node for contraction and is located in the lower interatrial septum and tranmsmits the impulses down to the ventricles to the bottom of the
    R atrium then
    R 1st then Left bundle branches
    Purkinje fibers
    AV node or atrioventricular node
  90. The only pathway for impulses from the atria to the ventricles is the
    atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle) or aka bundle of His
  91. Bundle of His is also known as the
    atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle)
  92. Have 1000s abd 1000s of branches looks like a tree and really helps spead signal to the muscle tissues of the heart and to the rest of ht ventricular myocardium and bring aobut ventricular systole
    Purkinje fibers
  93. EKG or ECG which is an electronic reading
  94. printed version of EKG
  95. signal which triggers atrial contraction
    P wave
  96. signal that triggers ventricular contractions
    QRS complex
  97. average pulse is
  98. max pulse is
  99. what are the characteristics of the cardia muscle
    • involuntary
    • branched muscles
    • has only a single nucleus
    • nerve signal spread from cell to cell
    • peristalsis: action potential traveling never signal from cell to cell
    • intercolated discs: connects the cells & allow signal to spread via sodium
    • Channels in intercolated discs allow flow of water and electrolytes
  100. waves of muscular contraction (one-way) that propel the contents through a hollow organ
  101. a modification of the cell membrane of cardiac muscle cells; the end membranes of adjacent cells are folded and fit into one another; permits rapid transmission of the electrical impulses that bring aobut contraction.
    connects the cells and allow signal to spread
    intercalated disc
  102. This term means the amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in 1 min.
    cardiac output
  103. The term for the amount of blood pumped by a ventricle per beat
    stroke volume
  104. an average stroke volume is
    60-80 mL per beat.
  105. stroke volume X pulse (heart rate)= this is the formula for
    cardiac output
  106. The increase in stroke volum is the result of ____, which states that the more the cardiac muscle fibers are stretched, the more forcefully they contract.
    Starling's law of the heart
  107. when more blood returns to the heart it is called
    venous return
  108. the extra volume the heart can pumb when cecessary is call the
    cardiac reserve
  109. another measure of the health of the heart is the percent of the blood in a ventricle that is pumped during systole is called the
    ejection fraction.
  110. What part of the brain contains the two cardiac centers, the accelerator center and the inhibitory center.
  111. What centers send impulses to the heart along autonomic nerves?
    • cardiac center
    • accelerator center
    • inhibitory center
  112. which part of the the autonomic nervous system increases heart rate and force of contraction during exercise and stressful situations
    sympathetic nervous system
  113. which part of the autonomic nervous system decreases the heart rate  ( the neurotransmitter is acetylcholine). At rest these impulses slow down te depolariztion of the SA node to what wecalled the resting rate, and they also slow the heart after exercise is over
    parasympathetic nervous system.
  114. name the receptors in the carotid sinuses and arotic sinus that detect changes in the blood pressure
  115. name the receptors that are in the carotid bodies and aortic body detect changes in the oxygen contents of the blood