Chemistry 1160 Chapter 13

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Chemistry 1160 Chapter 13
2012-09-21 08:28:29
Chemistry 1160 Chapter 13 ECU

Chemistry 1160 Chapter 13 ECU
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  1. Kinetics
    kinetics is the study of the factors that affect the speed of a reaction and the mechanism by which a reaction proceeds
  2. 4 factors that influence the speed of a reaction:
    • nature of the reactants (physical states (s,l,g) surface area)
    • temperature,
    • catalysts,
    • concentration
  3. what do catalysts do
    speeds up the reaction by lowering the activation energy
  4. There are three types of reaction rates
    1)  Average Rate:  2)  Instantaneous Rate:  3)  Initial Reaction Rate: 
  5. 2)  Instantaneous Rate:
    Provides the rate of a reaction at a given moment.
  6. 3)  Initial Reaction Rate: .
    Is the instantaneous reaction rate at the moment the reaction starts
  7. Instantaneous Rate - Determined from the
    slope of a tangent to the concentration vs time curve at a specified time.
  8. Rates of reactions depend on
    concentration of reactants
  9. The more starting material you have, the------------ a reaction will proceed.
  10. Second order – rate quadruples when ---------- concentration (exponential) 
    • doubling
    • M/s = k (M)2  k = M-1s-1
  11. Zero order = relationship to concentration?
    • independent of concentration
    • Rate = k[A]  M/s = k (M)  k = M/s units
  12. Most reactions do not contain
    only one reactant
  13. Reaction (Rate) Constant -
    A proportionality constant relating the concentrations to the reaction rate.
  14. If x,y, and z are added together, what does that equal
    the total
  15. Half-Life, t1/2 -
    time required for the concentration or amount of a sample to decrease by 50%. One-half of the sample reacts each half-life.
  16. The minimum amount of energy required to reach the transition state is referred to as the
    Energy of Activation. 
  17. Upon collision, a chemical reaction occurs as reactants pass through ------------in which bonds are being broken and new bonds are being formed.
    a transition state
  18. The rate of a chemical reaction is dependent upon ------------
    its energy of activation.
  19. Those reactions that have a high energy of activation tend to proceed -----------
  20. Reactions that have a small energy of activation tend to proceed ------
  21. A catalyst is a substance that
    speeds up a reaction but is not consumed in the process. (lowers activation energy required)
  22. elementary steps, meaning that they cannot ------and that the molecules actually------------
    • 1be broken down into simpler steps
    • 2interact directly in this manner without any other steps
  23. molecularity
    the number of reactant particles in an elementary step
  24. a unimolecular step involves -------------
    a bimolecular step involves-------------
    • 1 reactant particle
    • 2 reactant particlesthough they may be the same kind of particle
  25. rate determining step
    • the slowest step has the largest activation energy
    • product production cannot occur any faster than the slowest step – the step determines the rate of the overall reaction
  26. Make equations cards