Chemistry 1160 Chapter 13
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kinetics is the study of the factors that affect the speed of a reaction and the mechanism by which a reaction proceeds
4 factors that influence the speed of a reaction:
- nature of the reactants (physical states (s,l,g) surface area)
what do catalysts do
speeds up the reaction by lowering the activation energy
There are three types of reaction rates
1) Average Rate: 2) Instantaneous Rate: 3) Initial Reaction Rate:
2) Instantaneous Rate:
Provides the rate of a reaction at a given moment.
3) Initial Reaction Rate: .
Is the instantaneous reaction rate at the moment the reaction starts
Instantaneous Rate -Determined from the
slope of a tangent to the concentration vs time curve at a specified time.
Rates of reactions depend on
concentration of reactants
The more starting material you have, the------------ a reaction will proceed.
Second order – rate quadruples when ---------- concentration (exponential)
- M/s = k (M)2 k = M-1s-1
Zero order = relationship to concentration?
- independent of concentration
- Rate = k[A] M/s = k (M) k = M/s units
Most reactions do not contain
only one reactant
Reaction (Rate) Constant -
A proportionality constant relating the concentrations to the reaction rate.
If x,y, and z are added together, what does that equal
Half-Life, t1/2 -
time required for the concentration or amount of a sample to decrease by 50%.One-half of the sample reacts each half-life.
The minimum amount of energy required to reach the transition state is referred to as the
Energy of Activation.
Upon collision, a chemical reaction occurs as reactants pass through ------------in which bonds are being broken and new bonds are being formed.
a transition state
The rate of a chemical reaction is dependent upon ------------
its energy of activation.
Those reactions that have a high energy of activation tend to proceed -----------
Reactions that have a small energy of activation tend to proceed ------
A catalyst is a substance that
speeds up a reaction but is not consumed in the process. (lowers activation energy required)
elementary steps, meaning that they cannot ------and that the molecules actually------------
- 1be broken down into simpler steps
- 2interact directly in this manner without any other steps
the number of reactant particles in an elementary step
a unimolecular step involves -------------
a bimolecular step involves-------------
- 1 reactant particle
- 2 reactant particlesthough they may be the same kind of particle
rate determining step
- the slowest step has the largest activation energy
- product production cannot occur any faster than the slowest step – the step determines the rate of the overall reaction
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