A&P Lecture for Exam

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Amylou
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A&P Lecture for Exam
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2012-09-14 13:17:59
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Chapters 1-4
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  1. Physiology Describes
    It is the study of the FUNCTION of each structure,individually and in combination with other structures 

    In Greek OLOGY - the sudy of ; Physio - natural science
  2. Anatomy Describes
    • Describes the STRUCTURE of the body (ie, names, composition,location & assocated structures) 
    • Greek Word - ANATOMY - cutting open - it is a plan or map ofthe body
  3. What are Molocules?
    They are atoms that have bonded together.
  4. What does the Atomic Mass represent?
    The number of protons and neutrons in the necleus
  5. What determins the chemical property of the atom?
    The number of electorns in it's outmost shell
  6. What does the Atomic Number represent?
    The number of protons in the Necleus and Electrons in the Atom
  7. What are Isotopes?
    They are atoms that have the atomic number but a diffrent atomic mass becuase the number of neutrons differ
  8. What are the levels of organization of living things, from smallest to largest?
    • Atoms, the smallest functional units of matter
    • Molecules, active chemicals
    • Organelles, specialized structures within a cell
    • Cells, the smallest living units
    • Tissues, a group of similar cells that work together
    • Organs, two or more tissue types working together
    • Organ systems, two or more organs working together
    • Organism, a single individual, including all of the above
  9. Define Cytology
    • The study of CELL structure and function 
    • Cyt (Cell) Logy (study of)
  10. Define Histology
    The Study of Tissue 
  11. Somatic Cells
    Are all cellis in the human body with the exception ofreproductive cells (called Sex or Germ Cells)
  12. What are the 4 basic functions of the cell membrane?
    • Physical isolation: forms a physical barrier between the inside and outside of the cell. Keeps
    • things in or out.

    • Regulate exchange with the environment: controls entry of ions and nutrients,
    • eliminates waste, releases cellular products.

    • Monitor the environment:
    • detects changes in composition, concentration or pH of extracellular fluid.
    • Contains receptors that respond to chemical signals.

    Structural support: keeps cells in place and stabilizes tissues 
  13. What are the 4 main functions of Membrane Carbohydrates?
    • - Lubrication and protection
    • - Anchoring and locomotion
    • - Specificity in binding (receptors)
    • - Recognition (immune response)
  14. Important role of the Nucleus.
    The nucleus contains genetic information that is passed down (DNA)

    It directs protein synthesis which is what determines thefunction of a cell
  15. What is Transcription?v  Slide 10/11
    -When the DNA starnd is split in 2 the complementary strands of DNA uncoil in the specific area of one gene.  The gene is read by an enzyme called RNA polymerase.

    - It is the process of genetic information being pased to RNA.
  16. Transcription
    DNA is read to make a mRNA in the nucleus of our cells
  17. Translation
    Reading the mRNA to make aprotein in the cytoplasm
  18. Cell membrannes have what type of permeability?
    Selevtively permeable
  19. What is Difussion?  Is Energy used during this process?
    • Diffusion is the net movement of material (solute) from an
    • area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Diffusion occurs until the concentration gradient is eliminated

    Energy is not used during this process.
  20. What is Osmosis?
    Osmosis is the flow of water (solvent) across a membrane in response to differences in osmotic pressure.

    Movement of water up and down the gradient slope
  21. When discussing Toniccitty (the effect of osmotic pressuce on the cell)  What happens when the cell is Hypertonic?
    water flow into the cell and can lead to HEMOLYSIS - which can cause it to rupture
  22. When discussing Toniccitty (the effect of osmotic pressuce on the cell)  What happens when the cell is Hypotonic?  

    What happens when the cell is Hypertonic?
    • Hypotonic - HYPO means less thann. less concentraion of the solute t (liquid)  
    • This is when the solution causes water to flow OUT of the cell and can lead to crenation (shrinks)

    • •Hypertonic solutions have more solute than the inside
    • of the cell and lead to lysis (bursting)
    • - Water leaves the cell, leading to shrinking (crenation)

    •Hypotonic solutions have less solute than the inside of the cell and lead to crenation (shriveling)

    •Isotonic solutions have equal amounts of solute inside and outside the cell and thus does not affect the cell
  23. What does ISO mean?  What does TONIC mean?
    ISO - Same, Tonic -
  24. What is Solute?  What is Solvant?
    The Solute is the matter/ substance

    The Solvant is the liquid/ water
  25. What is endocytosis? 
    • How Things Get Into and Out of Cells/ Vesicular Transport
    • Movement into the cell is accomplished through , an active process that can take three forms:
  26. What is Phagocytosis?
    One of three ways in which things get into/ out of the cell - this active process is considered Cell drinking
  27. What is Phagocytosis?
    One of three ways in which things get into/ out of the cell - this active process is considered Cell Eating
  28. What is transmembrane potential?
    • Transmembrane potential provides electrical energy to
    • muscles, the nervous system and some glands.
  29. What happens when a cell is at rest?
    • It’s more permeable, this allows more potassium to flow in
    • and sodium to flow out - this is turn makes the inside of the cell slightly NEG
    • & the outside of the cell slightly POS. 

    This unequal charge is called TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL 
  30. The Cell Cycle - what happens in G1 Stage?
    Cell Groth (the cell doubles it organelles)
  31. ** ON EXAM - The Cell Cycle (interphase) - what happens in S Stage?
    DNA Replicartoin occurs
  32. The Cell Cycle (interphase) - what happens in G2 Stage?
    The protiens needed for division are syntheisized
  33. The Cell Cycle (interphase) - what happens in Interphase?
    The Cell is doing what it was designed to do (muscle contract)

    ** The cell spends most of its time in interpahse)
  34. The Cell Cycle - Cell Division - Mitisis?
    Nuclear Division
  35. Chemical Reactions - What happens during Displacemnet reactions?
    AB + CD would become AC + BD 

    Atoms move out of one compound and into another. (One element is replaced by another in a compound.)
  36. Chemical Reactions - What happens during Synthesis reactions?
    • Synthesis reactions are the opposite of decomposition. Small molecules join together to form larger molecules.
    • A+B would becolme AB

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