anp 2

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cgat45
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170430
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anp 2
Updated:
2012-09-17 01:23:59
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chapter18
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mastering notes
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  1. After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do?
    acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene
  2. Which hormone secreted by the pituitary gland causes the thyroid gland to release thyroid hormones?
    TSH-thyroid stimulating-hormone
  3. The release of ACTH from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland causes the _______.

    ACTH- adrenocorticotropic hormone
    adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids
  4. Which hormone affects the smooth muscle of the ductus deferens and uterus?
    OXT- oxytocin
  5. Which group of hormones cause an anti-inflammatory action?
    glucocorticoids
  6. Compared the endocrine system, the nervous system is __________.

    briefer in action

    more localized in action

    more rapidly acting

    Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system has all of these characteristics
    Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system has all of these characteristics
  7. Calcitonin is secreted by which cells
    • C cells (parafollicular cells) in the thyroid gland
    • the C cells produce calcitonin, a peptide hormone that decreases plasma calcium levels
  8. The zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces what steroid hormone?
    cortisol
  9. cortisol is produced in
    in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland and helps the body deal with stress by increasing plasma glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids.
  10. The sympathetic nervous system directly stimulates which of the following amine hormones?
    • epinephrine from the adrenal medulla
    • epinephrine and norepinephrine are amine hormones (catecholamines) secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to an increase in the sympathetic nervous system.
  11. What hormone causes the loss of sodium and water, thus lowering blood pressure
    • atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP
    • ANP is synthesized in the atrium and increases excretion of sodium and water from the kidneys.
  12. What amine hormone helps coordinate body activities with the light-dark cycle?
    • melatonin
    • melatonin, which is released from the pineal gland, increases during darkness, making you drowsy
  13. What hormone promotes glycogen synthesis in liver and muscle?
    • insulin
    • insulin promotes glucose uptake into cells and promotes glycogen synthesis in liver and muscle, thus decreasing plasma glucose.
  14. Where is  thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesized
    anterior lobe of pituitary gland
  15. Endocrine cells __________.   
    • contain secretory vesicles                 
    • secrete into extracellular fluid                  
    • perform intercellular communication       
  16. ________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues
    Hormones
  17. What is the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones?
    • activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell
    • lipid-soluble hormones diffuse into the nucleus or they diffuse into the cytoplasm and then move into the nucleus, where they affect transcription and translation.
  18. After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do?
    acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene
  19. Which hormone’s receptor is always bound to DNA, even when the receptor is empty?
    • thyroid hormone.
    • thyroid hormones are lipid soluble and their receptors are bound to the response elements of the DNA
  20. What keeps intracellular receptors from binding to DNA before a hormone binds to the receptor
    • chaperone proteins (chaperonins
    • each receptor has two binding sites. The chaperone protein blocks the DNA binding site until a hormone binds at the hormone binding site
  21. Lipid-soluble hormones usually bind to __________ receptors
    intranuclear       
  22. Peptide hormones ___________.
    are composed of amino acids
  23. Hormones can operate on the ________ level of organization. 
    • organismic
    • cellular
    • tissue
    • organ
  24. Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include
    • steroids.
    • eicosanoids.
    • amino acid
    • derivatives.
    • peptides
  25. After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex
    gene transcription is initiated
  26. The brain region that exerts the most direct effects on the endocrine system is the __________.
    hypothalamus       
  27. The primary function of ADH is to
    decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys
  28. Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of
    adh
  29. Hormones act at specific target organs because these organs contain __________ specific for the hormones.
    target cells or recpetors
  30. The parafollicular or C-cells of the ____________ gland produce __________, a peptide hormone that lowers plasma calcium levels.
    • parthyroid
    • parathyroid hormone
  31. Hormones secreted by the pancreatic islets of the pancreas include ___________ from the α cells and _______________  from the β cells.  Which of these hormones raise blood glucose levels?
    • glucagon
    • insulin
  32. ________, secreted by the pineal gland, helps regulate body activities with the light-dark cycle
    melatonin
  33. hypophyseal portal system
    carries ADH and oxytocin.has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins.is a blood connection between the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary.
  34. Which of these is released by the neurohypophysis?Which of these is released by the neurohypophysis?
    ADH
    TSH
    ACTH
    FSH
    ADH
  35. signs is often seen in patients suffering from hyperthyroid disease?
    .
    • elevated heart rate
    • elevated oxygen
    • utilizationelevated body temperature
    • Patients with hyperthyroidism often exhibit all of these signs
  36. Which chemical element is necessary to make thyroid hormone?
    iodine
  37. Which gland is named for a nearby prominent cartilage?
    thyroid
  38. __________ elevates blood calcium ion levels.
    Parathyroid hormone
  39. with a hypersecreting tumor of the adrenal gland?
    Elevation of blood pressure and blood glucose concentration
  40. Which hormone stimulates the adrenal gland?
    ACTH
  41. Calcitonin,
    secreted by the thyroid gland, removes calcium from the blood and is particularly important for children in depositing calcium in bones
  42. What type of hormones bind to receptors located on the cell membrane?
    • water-soluble hormones, such as insulin and epinephrine
    •  peptides and catecholamines are water-soluble hormones that cannot diffuse through the plasma membrane.
  43. Which intracellular substance degrades cAMP, thus inactivating the response to a hormone?
    • phosphodiesterase
    • phosphodiesterase is an intracellular enzyme that degrades cAMP
  44. Growth factor hormones, such as insulin, bind to which type of receptor?
    • tyrosine kinase receptor
    • insulin binds to tyrosine kinase receptors and works without a second messenger
  45. Which is the correct order of events for hormones activating Gs proteins?
    activation of G protein, binding of GTP, activation of adenylate cyclase, conversion of ATP to cAM
  46. Which second messenger causes the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum
    • IP3
    •  inositol trisphosphate releases calcium from intracellular storage sites.
  47. Which of the following adrenergic receptors increase cAMP levels?
    •  receptors
    • these receptors are coupled to adenylate cyclase by Gs receptors that increase cAMP
  48. Melatonin is secreted by __________.
    pinealocytes

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