Anthropology 1-1

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rjtorn22
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170433
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Anthropology 1-1
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2012-09-12 11:59:40
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  1. Anthropolgies 4 Fields
    • 1. Physical
    • 2. Archaeology
    • 3. Linguistics
    • 4. Cultural
  2. Physical Anthropology
    • 1. Emergence and evolution of humans as revealed by the fossil record.
    • 2. Genetics
    • 3. Growth Development
    • 4. Biological Plasticity
    • 5. Variation between modern populations.
  3. Basics of Anthropology
    • Relatively young discipline.
    • Developed in response to European exploration and
    • expansion
    • Europeans met people different from them
    • Missionaries recorded cultural information, which was sent back to Europe
    • Mid-19th century
    • -Anthropology as a discipline
    • -Individuals referred to as anthropologists
  4. History of Evolutionary Theory
    • The European Middle Ages (5th to 15th centuries)
    • The natural world was fixed and unchanging.
    • “Fixity of species”
  5. The Scientific Revolution
    • Old notions of how the world operated were being challenged
    • The search for physical laws begins
    • Telescope, barometer, microscope, navigation aids
    • Exploration of the planet by Europeans begins
  6. Evolution
    • Systematic change through time of biological organisms; change over time
    • Individuals do not evolve; breeding populations evolve
    • Opportunistic; always taking place
    • Changes are not always noticeable to the eye
  7. Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution
    • 1. Natural Selection
    • 2. Mutation
    • 3. Gene Flow
    • 4. Genetic Drift ("Founder Effect")
  8. Natural Selection
    • Organisms vary from each other in ways that are inherited
    • Differential reproductive success
    • Certain inherited traits can increase survival
    • Frequency of successful traits increase in subsequent generations; over long periods of time may produce new life forms
  9. Geographical Seperation
    Divergence between subpopulations of a parent species
  10. Biological Taxonomic Classification of Humans
    • Kingdom: Animalia
    • Phylum: Chordata
    • Sub-Phylum: Vertebrata
    • Class: Mammalia
    • Order: Primate
    • Sub-Order: Anthropoidea
    • Infra-Order: Catarrhini
    • Super-Family: Hominoidea
    • Family: Hominidae
    • Genus: Homo
    • Species: Sapiens
  11. Classification
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Sub-Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Sub-Order
    • Infra-Order
    • Super-Family
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  12. Basic Primate Traits (12)
    • 1. Generalized dentition: heterodonty
    • 2. Omnivorous diet
    • 3. Inability to synthesize Vitamin C
    • 4. Pentadactyly: 5 prehensile fingers & 5 toes
    • 5. Dermatoglyphic pads: fingerprints
    • 6. Most primates have an opposable thumb
    • 7. Fingernails
    • 8. Poor olfaction (sense of smell)
    • 9. Well-developed stereoscopic and color vision
    • 10. Most primates give birthto a single offspring
    • 11. Social animals
    • 12. Relatively large brains in relation to body size
  13. Primate Habitats
    • Arboreal: The most common habitat.
    • Terrestrial: Savanna.
  14. Primate Locomotion
    • 1. Clingers and leapers: tarsiers
    • 2. Arboreal Quadrupeds: lemurs
    • 3. Brachiators: gibbons
    • 4. Terrestrial Quadrupeds: baboons
    • 5. Terrestrial Knuckle Walkers: gorillas, orangutans, chimpanzees
    • 6. Bipedal:Humans
  15. Primate Behavior
    • Old School Thought
    • -Human behavior was learned rational, and thoughtful
    • -Other primates were reactive and instinctive
    • New School Thought
    • -Primates share many traits that were once thought to be uniquely human
  16. Human Physical Features (13)
    • 1. Large number of sweat glands
    • 2. Relatively hairless bodies
    • 3. Short forelimbs
    • 4. Acute touch
    • 5. Habitual bipeds
    • 6. Good distance walkers
    • 7. No divergent big toe
    • 8. “S”-shaped spine
    • 9. Broad, flat pelvic girdle
    • 10.  Babies very helpless
    • 11.  Relatively long lifespan
    • 12.  Females sexually receptive year-round
    • 13.  Larger brains than other primates
    • -Modern human brain: 1000-2000 cc; Gorillas: 500 cc; Chimpanzees: 380 cc
  17. Taphonomy
    • The science of burial.
    • The study of processes that have affected organic materials after death.
  18. Geologic Time (7)
    • 1. Paleocene (65mya-58mya)
    • 2. Eocene (58mya-34mya)
    • 3. Oligocene (34mya-24mya)
    • 4. Miocene (24mya-5mya)
    • 5. Pliocene (5mya-2mya)
    • 6. Pleistocene (2mya-10,000)
    • 7. Holocene (10,000-present)

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