Anthropology 1-2

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rjtorn22
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Anthropology 1-2
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2012-09-12 12:19:01
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  1. Archbishop James Ussher (1581-1656)
    • Proponent of a young earth
    • Used chronologies, genealogies, and the ages of Biblical figures
    • Earth was created October 23, 4004 BC
  2. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778)
    • Received plant and animal specimens from his “disciples”
    • Systema Natura (System of Nature) (1735)
    • Hierarchical classification system
    • Classified humans, apes, and monkeys in the same order
    • Accepted fixity of species
  3. Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
    • Argued that life is dynamic, not static
    • Referred to this as evolution
    • Life forms change over time because…
    • 1. Life is striving for its ideal form
    • 2. Inheritance of acquired traits
  4. James Hutton (1726-1797)
    • Proposed the idea of Uniformatarianism
    • Earth’s features were formed by everyday occurrences
    • Argued for a much older earth
  5. Georges Cuvier (1769-1832)
    • Opponent of biological evolution
    • Believed the earth was very ancient
    • Proposed the idea of Catastrophism
  6. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
    • An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
    • Three main points:
    • 1. Within species there is variation
    • 2. Inheritance of traits
    • 3. Species produce more offspring than will survive - Superfecundity
  7. Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
    • Studied medicine and theology
    • BA degree from Cambridge University (1831)
    • Professor John Henslow recommended him for the post of naturalist (H.M.S. Beale) 
    • Voyage of the Beagle (1831 – 1836)
    • Observe biological and geological phenomena; collect samples
    • Read Charles Lyell’s Principles of Geology which introduced him to Uniformatarianism
    • Earthquake in South America
    • Galapagos Island animals were similar to mainland SA animals, yet, with subtle differences
    • Suspected that these animals came from the mainland and changed over time
    • Evolved
    • Convinced of the idea of evolution, but was unsure of the mechanism
    • Read Malthus’ book on population
    • EUREKA!
    • Finches lay many, many eggs (superfecundity)
    • Some survive because they have certain physical advantages while the others die
    • Natural Selection (nature “selects” better suited variations to survive)
    • He came up with this idea in 1838
    • On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859)
  8. Raymond Dart (1893-1988) & A. Africanus
    • Discovered in 1925
    • The first Australopithecine discovered
    • “Southern ape of Africa”
    • First evidence of an early hominid
    • 3mya — 2mya
    • Once thought to be ancestral to Homo
    • 1 almost complete cranium
    • Several partial skulls
    • 100s of teeth
    • Dozens of jaws
    • 4 partial skeletons
    • Dart thought he discovered earliest evidence of culture (Osteodontokeratic culture)
  9. Donald Johanson (1943-present) & A. afarensis
    ~65 specimens discovered
  10. Louis (1903-1972) & Mary Leakey (1913-1996) and A. boisei
    • Discovered in 1959
    • 2.3mya — 1.3mya
    • First evidence of hominids in eastern Africa
    • 2 nearly complete skulls
    • Several partial skulls
    • Many jaw fragments
    • Dozens of teeth
    • Some long bones
    • Sagittal Crest
  11. Christian Thomsen (1786-1865) & The Three Age System
    • 1. Lower Paleolithic: 2.3mya - 200,000 BP
    • 2. Middle Paleolithic: 200,000 BP - 40,000 BP
    • 3. Upper Paleolithic: 40,000 BP - 12,000 BP
    • 4. Mesolithic: began 12,000 BP
    • 5. Neolithic: began 10,000 BP
    • 6. Bronze Age: began 5,000 BP
    • 7. Iron Age: began 3,000 BP
  12. Louis & Richard Leakey and Homo habillis
    • Discovered in 1961 at Olduvai Gorge (eastern Africa)
    • “handy man”
    • Earliest species in our genus (~2.3mya)
    • Larger brain: 600cc
    • Brain hemispheres show asymmetry and more complexity
    • Teeth and bones look Australopithecine
  13. Eugene Dubois (1858-1940) & Homo erectus
    • Discovered in 1891
    • Cranium and thigh bone fragment first found
    • Earliest finds from ~1.8mya
    • First hominid species to be widely distributed around the world
    • Physical Characteristics:
    • 1. Occipital torus
    • 2. Sagittal keel
    • 3. Squat, thick-walled cranium (900-1040 cc)
    • 4. Dentition: modern humans
    • 5. Slightfacial prognathism
    • 6. Prominent brow ridges
    • 7. Projecting nose
    • 8. Size: modern humans
    • 9. Sexual dimorphism: modern humans
    • 10.  Neck down = modern human looking

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