Anthropology 1-3

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Author:
rjtorn22
ID:
170442
Filename:
Anthropology 1-3
Updated:
2012-09-12 12:36:06
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General
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  1. The Paleocene
    • (65mya-58mya)
    • Earth was heavily forested; cool and wet climate
    • Many mammals evolved (insectivores)
    • Scarce evidence of early primates
    • Fossil remains of jaws and teeth
  2. The Eocene
    • 58mya-34mya
    • Earliest undisputed primates emerge
    • >200 primate species identified
  3. The Oligocene
    • 43mya-24mya
    • Cool and dry climate
    • North America seperates from Eurasia
  4. The Miocene
    • 24mya-5mya
    • ~100 ape scecies roamed the old world
    • Monkeys and apes diverge
    • Human line and other apes split ~8mya
    • Ardiphithecus ramidus: earliest known hominid (~5.8 mya)
  5. Hypotheses for Bipedal Evolution
    • 1. Life in the African savanna
    • 2. Free hands to carry food, carry children, acquire food, eating more efficiently
    • 3. Allows for long-distance travel
    • 4. Body temperautre regulation
  6. Skeletal Evidence for Bipedalism
    • 1. Head balanced on backbone
    • 2. Lack of powerful neck muscles
    • 3. "S" shaped spine
    • 4. Muscle attachments on femur
    • 5. Legs angle in toward each other
    • 6. Long legs
    • 7. Foramen magnum
    • 8. Low, bowl-shaped, broad pelvis
    • 9. Larger ankle bones and arched feet
    • 10. No divergent big toe
  7. The Pilocene
    • 5mya-2mya
    • Hominid: member of the family Hominidae (bipedal)
    • Two genera in the hominid family:
    • -Australiphithecus (all extinct)
    • -Homo (both extinct and extant)
  8. Australopithecine Characteristics
    • Facial prognathism
    • Prominent brow ridges
    • Big incisors and canine teeth
    • Thickly enameled teeth
    • Small Brained
    • Sexually dimorphic
    • Short stature (<4 feet tall)
    • Bipedal
  9. Selam the Dikika Baby
    • 3.3 million year old infant (3 years old)
    • Ethiopia
    • Very complete skeleton, including face, shoulder blades, hyoid bone
    • Shoulder blades are gorilla-like
    • Tree-dweller and biped?
    • Discovery of a child gives clues to infant development
  10. Laetoli footprints
    • Found by Mary Leakey
    • Footprints in volcanic ash that were covered and preserved
    • Weight distribution = modern human
    • ~3.6mya
  11. Homo habilis & Oldowan Tools: The Lower Paleolithic
    • ~2.3mya: identifiable stone tools
    • Tool use: cultural behavior
    • Stone tools asscoiated with H. habilis
    • Identified by Mary Leakey in Tanzania, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopea, South Africa, Israel
    • Percussion Flaking
  12. Uses for Oldowan tools
    • 1. Cutting
    • 2. Smashing bones
    • 3. Digging
    • 4. Working wood (?)
    • 5. Scraping (?)
    • 6. Defense (?)
  13. Tools weren't just rocks because...
    • 1. Exotic raw materials
    • 2. Flaking patterns
    • 3. Often found with animal bones
    • 4. Not water or glacier worn

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