Chapter 16

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JChristie20
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17045
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Chapter 16
Updated:
2010-05-01 14:10:14
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Lymph System
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Holes Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 16 Lymph System
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  1. vast collection of cells and biochemicals that travel in lymphatic vessels and the organs and glands that produce them
    lymphatic system
  2. lymphatic pathways begin as __________ that merge to form lyphatic vessels
    capillaries
  3. the wall of a lymphatic capillary consists of a single layer of _________ cells
    squamus epithelial
  4. one interstitual fluid is inside a lymph capillary the fluid is called _____
    lymph
  5. lymphatic vessels have walls similar to those of ______ but thinner
    veins
  6. lymphatic vessels contain _____ that help prevent the backflow of lymph
    valves
  7. lymphatic vessels usually lead to ______ _____ that lifer the fluid being transported
    lymph nodes
  8. the lymphatic trunk that drains the abdominal viscera is called the ___________ trunk
    intestinal
  9. the lymphatic trunk that drains the head and neck is called the _____ trunk
    jugular
  10. which of the two lymphatic ducts is larger and longer?
    thoracic trunk
  11. lymph nodes contain large numbers of what two types of white blood cells that fight invading microorganisms?
    • lymphocytes
    • macrophages
  12. the indented region where blood vessels and nerves join a lymph node is called ____
    hilum
  13. contain germinal centers are the structural units of a lymph node
    nodules
  14. the spaces within a lymph node through which lymph circulates is called _____
    sinus
  15. lymph every a node through which type of lymph vessel?
    afferent
  16. the partially encapsuled lymph nodes in the pharynx are called
    tonsils
  17. the aggregations of lymph nodules found within the mucosal lining of the small intestine are called
    pyers patches
  18. the lymph nodes associated with the lymphatic vessels that drain the lower limbs are located in the _____ region
    inguinal
  19. the thymus is located in the __________, anterior to the aortic arch
    mediastenium
  20. the thymus reaches its greatest size during infancy and early childhood and rends to decrease in size following ______
    puberty
  21. as a person ages, the thymus tissue is often replaced by ______ and _________ _________
    adipose and connective tissue
  22. the lymphocytes of the thymus develop from percursor cells that originated in the ________ ________
    bone marrow
  23. the hormones secreted by the thymus are called
    thymosins
  24. which organ is the largest lymphatic organ
    spleen
  25. blood vessels enter the spleen through the regin called the
    hilum
  26. the sinuses of the spleen contain ______
    blood
  27. the tiny islands of tissue within the spleen that contain many lymphocytes comprise the ______ pulp
    white
  28. the _____ pulp of the spleen contains large numbers of red blood cells, lymphocytes and macrophages
    red
  29. ______ within the spleed engulf and destroy foreign particles and cellular debris
    macrophages
  30. microscopic, closed-ended tubes, extend into interstitual spaces, forming complex networks that parallel the networks of the blood capillaries
    lymphatic capillaries
  31. What structures drain lymph from the lymphatic vessels?
    lymphatic trunks
  32. originates in the right thorax at the union of the right jugular, right subclavian and right bronchomediastinal trunks
    right lymphatic duct
  33. originates from plasma and includes water and dissolved substances that have passed through the capillary walls
    tissue fluid
  34. increasing hydrostatic pressure in interstitual spaces forces some tissue fluid into lymphatic capillaries
    lymph formation
  35. lymph returns the smaller protein molecules and fluid to the bloodstream
    lymph function
  36. contraction of skeletal muscles and low pressure in the thorax created by breathing movements move _____
    lymph
  37. any condition that interferes with the flow of lymph results in _____
    edema
  38. located along lymphatic pathways
    lymph nodes
  39. these lymph nodes are follow the lower border of the mandible, anterior to and posterior to the ears, and deep i the neck along the paths of the larger blood vessels
    cervical region
  40. lymph nodes in the underarm region receive lymph from vessels that drain the upper limbs, the wall of the thorax, the mammary glands and the upper wall of the abdomen
    axillary region
  41. these lymph nodes are located superficially on the medial side of the elbow
    supratrochlear region
  42. lymph nodes in the iguinal region receive lymph from the lower limbs, the external genitalia and the lower abdominal wall
    inguinal region
  43. here lymph nodes primarily follow the iliac blood vessels
    pelvic cavity
  44. the lymph nodes form chains along the main branches of the mesenteric arteries and the abdominal aorta
    abdominal cavity
  45. these lymph nodes are in the mediastenium and along the trachea and bronchi
    thoracic cavity
  46. What are the major functions of lymph nodes?
    filter potentially harmful foreign particles from the lymph before it is returned to the bloodstream
  47. disease causing agent
    pathogen
  48. a species is resistant to certain diseases to which other species are susceptible
    species resistant
  49. unbroken skin and mucous membranes prevent the entrance of some infectious agents
    mechanical barriers
  50. enzymes in various body fluids kill pathogens
    chemical barriers
  51. distinct type of lymphocyte that secrets perforins that lyse virus- infected cells and cancer cells
    natural killer cells
  52. a tissue response to injury that helps prevent the spread of infectious agents into nearby tissues
    inflammation
  53. neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages engulfs and destroy foreign particles and cells
    phagocytosis
  54. elevated body temp inhibits microbial growth and increases phagocytic activity
    fever
  55. the resistance to specific pathogens or to their toxins or metabolic by-products
    immunity
  56. molecules that can elicit an immune response
    antigen
  57. type of white blood cell that interacts directly with antigen bearing cells and particles, and secrets cytokines producing the cellular immune response
    T lymphocyte
  58. lymphocyte that produces and secrets antibodies that bind and destroy nonself molecules
    B Lymphocyte
  59. cluster of genes that code for cell proteins
    major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
  60. becomes ativated when its antigen receptor combines with displayed foreign antigen....stimulates the B cell to produceantibodies specific for the displayed antigen
    helper T cell
  61. recognizes and combines with nonself antigens that cancerous cells or virally infected cells display on their surfaces near certain MHC proteins
    cyctotoxic T cell
  62. provide for future immune protection
    memory T cell
  63. circulation antibodies destruction of cells bearing nonself antigen
    humoral immunity
  64. type of antibody producing cell that forms when activated B cells proliferate
    plasma cell
  65. protein that B cells of the immune system produce in response to a nonself antigen; it reacts with the antigen
    antibody
  66. defends against bacteria, viruses and toxins; plasma and tissue fluid
    IgG
  67. defends against bacteria and viruses; exocrine gland secretions
    IgA
  68. reacts with antigens on some red blood cell membranes following mismatched blood transfusions; plasma
    IgM
  69. B cell activation; surface of most B lymphocytes
    IgD
  70. promost inflammation and allgergic reactions; exocrine gland secretions
    IgE
  71. specialized ends of antibodies that bind specific antigens
    antigen binding sites
  72. group of proteins activated when an antibody binds an antigen; enhances reaction against nonself substance
    complement
  73. immune systems response to an initial encounter with a nonself antigen
    primary immune response
  74. immune systems response to subsequent encounters with a nonself antigen
    secondary immune resonse
  75. exposed to live pathogens; stimulation of an immune response with symptoms of a disease
    naturally acquired active immunity
  76. exposure to a vaccine containing weakend or dead pathogens or their components; stimulations of an immune response without the symptoms of a disease
    artificially acquired active immunity
  77. injection of gamma globulin containing antibodies or antitoxin; short term immunity without stimulating an immune response
    artificially acquired passive immunity
  78. antibodies passed to fetus from pregnant woman with active immunity or to newborn thru breast milk; short term immunity for newborn without stimulating an immune response
    naturally acquired passive immunity
  79. preperation that includes antigens used to stimulate an ummune response to prevent an infectious disease
    vaccine
  80. an immune response to a nonharmful substance and can damage tissues
    allergic reaction
  81. the antigens that trigger allergic responses are
    allergens
  82. severe form of immediate reaction allergy in which mast cells release allergy mediators thru apprehension
    anaphylactic shock
  83. the recipients cells may recognize the donors tissues as foreign and attempt to destroy the transplanted tissue
    tissue rejection reaction
  84. the transplanted tissue may also produce molcules that harm the recipients tissue
    graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)
  85. graft where the donor is an identical twin
    isograft
  86. type of graft where the donor is yourself
    autograft
  87. type of graft where the donor is of the same species
    allograft
  88. type of graft where the donor is from a different species
    xenograft
  89. an antibody produced against itself
    autoantibody
  90. What happens to the immune system as we age?
    the immune system begins to break decline early in life due to the shrink thymus

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