Nutrition Education Theories

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aduenas
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170461
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Nutrition Education Theories
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2012-09-12 15:58:53
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chapter 4 - 6 Theories
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  1. Health Belief Model ( HBM )
    • - One of the most utilized models
    • - States that people's beliefs influence theri health-related actions or behaviors
    • - Framework for understanding individual’s
    • psychological readiness or intention to take a given health action
  2. Constructs of HBM (7)
    • perceived severity - seriousness of contracting an illness
    • perceived susceptibility- possibility of contracting the illness
    • perceived threat/risk- combo of severity and susceptibility and together result in our readiness to take action
    • preceived benfits- will action benefit us to reduce risk
    • preceived barriers- include cost, inconvenience, no availability or access
    • self-efficacy- confidence in the ability to do it
    • cues to action- external events affecting the person
  3. research and interventions for HBM
    • Research studies using the model:
    • - Beliefs are the most powerful
    • determinant in predicting health behavior.

    • - Importance of specific beliefs
    • vary by study.

    • Intervention studies using the model for
    • older adults, university employees, and social marketing campaigns
  4. Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM)
    Describes hoe people come to a decision to adopt a new precautionary behavior through a series of stages
  5. Stages for PAPM
    • 1. unaware of issue
    • 2. unegaged of issue
    • 3. decide about acting
    • 4. Decided not to act.....Then they are done with the stages
    • 5. Decided to act
    • 6. Act
    • 7. Maitenance
  6. Mediators for the first 3 stages
    • •Perceived
    • severity
    • •Perceived
    • susceptibility
    • •Attitudes
    • (cognitive)
    • •Attitudes
    • (affective)
    • •Perceived
    • social norms
    • •Descriptive
    • norms
  7. Mediators for the last 3 stages
    • •Knowledge
    • and skills
    • •Time,
    • effort, resources to act
    • •Cues
    • to action
    • •Social
    • support
  8. Theory of Planned Behavior
    Peoples behaviors are determined by their intentions, which are influenced by attitudes and beliefs, social norms and preception of control over the behavior

    • - can be used on a variety of populations
    • - There are external behaviors such as:
    • demographics and personality traits
  9. Self Determination Theory
    • Individuals have innate psycological needs for autonomy, competance and relatedness, which, when satisfied, enhances their autonomous motivation and well being.
    • enhancement of growth and well being requires satisfaction of these basic needs and supportive social conditions.
    • - basic needs are competence, autonomy and relatedness
  10. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)
    Behavior is the result of personal, hahavioral and environmental factors that influence each other. environmments shape behaviors, but individuals can influence the environment and their own behaviors through self-reflection and self-regulatory processes
  11. Constructs of SCT (4)
    • 1. Individual or personal factor - can be thinking or physical and have barriers
    • 2. Behavioral - their knowledge and how-to apply
    • 3. Environmental
    • 4. Relationship to biological variables - which influences food choices such as knowing their hunger or satiety level
  12. Self-Regulation / Self-Efficacy Models
    • - these people have more motivation and drive to continue/maintain
    • - very similar to the SCT
    • - The first model is the : Health Action Process Approach Model
  13. Health Action Process Approach Model
    2 phases to this model:

    • 1. Motivational phase: focuses on beliefs and affect or feelings, and a deliberative mind-set prevails. when adopting a valued health behavior it depends on 3 sets of beliefs
    • -risk perceptions, outcome expectancies and perceived self-efficacy

    2. Action Phase: focuses on implementation and actions we want to convert intentions into action plans with specifics of when, where and how we will take action
  14. Grounded Theory Approach: Personal Food Policies
    individuals develop food policies or systems to manage, over the long term, the numerous and conflicting values they hold about their food choices
  15. Transtheoretical Model (TTM)
    • - one of the most widely used
    • - TTM proposes that self-change in behavior is a process that occurs through 5 stages.
    • - a model of behavior change, NOT predicting behavior
  16. The Stages of Change Construct (SOC) from TTM
    • 1. Precontemplation
    • 2. Contemplation
    • 3. Preparation
    • 4. Action
    • 5. Maintenance
  17. The Processes of Change from TTM
    • strategies individuals use to move themselves throughthe stages of change.
    • 1. Experential or Cognitive - focus on thoughts, feelings, and experiences
    • 2. Behavioral- focuses on behaviors and reinforcements
  18. Social Ecological Models (SEM)
    • 1. Social Networks - family, friends can alter choices
    • 2. Social Support - emotional, instrumental/money, informational and appraisal support can be given
    • 3. Organizational level - school settings and work places
    • 4. Community level - 5 listed below
    • - community capacity building which are in a group setting, start small and share skills/activities
    • - empowerment
    • - builing coalitions and collaberations
    • - benefits and costs of coalitions
    • - NE networks

    • 5. Policy and Systems Change Activities
    • - school policies
    • - work policies
    • - local wellness policies
    • - national level public policy

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