Exam 1 biology

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Exam 1 biology
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2012-09-12 21:13:43
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  1. Actinomycetes:
    • Single-celled organisms that produce antibiotic compounds.








  2. acyclovir


    • An antiviral drug.








  3. alga (pl. algae)


    Simple chlorophyll-containing organisms, often single-celled; were probably the ancestors to the land plants.
  4. Alveolates
    Protists that include apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, foraminiferans, and ciliates.
  5. alveoli
    In protists, tiny membranous sacs under the plasma membrane.
  6. amoeboflagellates
    Single-celled protists that live in water and soil, and usually display pseudopodia
  7. anaerobe
    Cells that don’t require the presence of oxygen for every harvest.
  8. Apicomplexa
    group of protists that includes the malarial parasite
  9. autotroph
    Gr. auto, self + trophos, feeder) An organism, such as a plant, that can manufacture its own food.
  10. bacillus (pl. bacilli)
    (L. bacilli, a rod) A bacterial cell with a rod shape.
  11. binary fission
    Asexual reproduction by division of a cell or body into two equivalent parts.
  12. bioremediation
    Bacterial breakdown of environmental pollutants.
  13. Brown algae
    Chromista that inhabit cool, offshore waters and range from golden brown to dark brown to black.
  14. capsid
    The protein coat that encases a virus.
  15. Cellular slime molds
    type of funguslike protist, usually existing as free-living amoebalike cells, but aggregating into a multicellular fruiting body before producing reproductive spores.
  16. chemoautotrophs
    An organism that derives energy from a simple inorganic reaction.
  17. Chlamydia
    Bacterial species that live inside animal cells and lack an ability to make their own ATP; can cause a sexually transmitted disease.
  18. Choanoflagellates
    Single-celled or colonial protists living in fresh water and in the oceans. Each has a collar formed by a ring of microvilli.
  19. Chromista
    Protists with golden, brownish, and greenish pigments.
  20. ciliate
    A protozoan whose cells have rows of cilia that are used in locomotion and in sweeping food particles into the mouth
  21. coccus (pl. cocci)
    A bacterial cell with a spherical shape.
  22. conjugation
    In some prokaryotes, the temporary union of two unicellular organisms of different mating strains, during which time the genetic material is transferred from one to the other.
  23. cyanobacteria (pl. cyanobacterium)
    One of the blue-green algae; a photosynthetic, oxygen-generating and nitrogen-fixing prokaryote.
  24. diatomaceous earth
    Crumbly white sediments made up of diatom shells
  25. Diatoms
    Phytoplankton that are members of Chromista and usually contain golden pigments.
  26. dinoflagellates
    Protists with armorlike coverings and two flagella, one in a beltlike groove and the other trailing behind; often can cause red tides.
  27. Diplomonad
    The group of protists that includes Giardia, a common human parasite.
  28. endospore
    A heavily encapsulated resting cell formed within many types of bacterial cells during times of environmental stress
  29. Euglenoid
    Green, spindle-shaped protists with eyespots.
  30. extremophiles
    Prokaryotes that survive in Earth’s most extreme environments.
  31. foraminiferans
    Delicately shaped protists that live in the oceans and secrete usually whitish, calcium-based shells.
  32. frond
    The leaflike structure of an individual alga that collects sunlight and produces sugars. Also refers to the large divided leaf on a fern.
  33. fruiting bodies
    A spore-producing reproductive structure in many fungi.
  34. gram-negative cells
    Prokaryotes in which the peptidoglycan layer is covered by an outer sheet of proteins and lipopolysaccharides; don’t pick up Gram’s stain.
  35. gram-positive cells
    Prokaryotes containing peptidoglycans in a single broad layer; do pick up Gram’s stain.
  36. Gram’s stain
    A special stain that distinguishes gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.
  37. green algae
    Protists with green pigments that are closely related to plants; also called Chlorophyta.
  38. halophile
    A type of archaebacterium that can tolerate extremely high salt concentrations.
  39. heterotroph
    Gr. heteros, different + trophos, feeder) An organism, such as an animal, fungus, and most prokaryotes and protists, that takes in preformed nutrients from external sources.
  40. holdfast
    A rootlike anchor that attaches an alga to its substrate, such as a rock on the ocean floor.
  41. hypha (pl. hyphae)
    One of many long, thin filaments of cells that make up a multicellular fungus.
  42. kelp
    One of the largest members of the algal world, a brown alga.
  43. Kinetoplastid
    Primitive protists with long whiplike flagella; includes the protist causing African sleeping sickness.
  44. macronucleus
    In ciliates, a large nucleus containing many sets of chromosomes that control cell activities.
  45. methanogen
    A type of archaebacterium that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct.
  46. micronucleus
    In ciliates, one of several nuclei that undergo meiosis and are exchanged during sexual reproduction
  47. Microsporidia
    Among the simplest of eukaryotic cells, they live only inside animal cells.
  48. mycoplasmas
    A type of the smallest free-living cells, these simplified members of the domain Bacteria lack cell walls, live inside animals, plants, and sometimes other single-celled organisms, and can cause a dangerous form of pneumonia as well as infections of the urinary tract and other organs.
  49. Parabasalians
    Ancient, primitive protists such as the organisms inside a termite’s gut.
  50. parasite
    A type of predator that obtains benefits at the expense of another organism, its host. A parasite is usually smaller than its host, lives in close physical association with it, and generally saps its host’s strength rather than killing it outright.
  51. peptidoglycan
    Sugar-protein complexes occurring in prokaryotic cell walls
  52. Photoautotrophs
    An organism that captures energy from light.
  53. phytoplankton
    Photosynthetic microorganisms that live near the surface of marine and fresh water.
  54. plasmodium
    One form of a true slime mold that is a mass of continuous cytoplasm surrounded by one plasma membrane that moves slowly, like a giant amoeba. Also, the genus of malarial parasites.
  55. potato blight
    A species of water mold that rots and kills growing potato vines.
  56. Prion
    An intracellular disease-causing entity apparently consisting only of protein and having no genetic material.
  57. Prokaryote
    An organism made up of a prokaryotic cell.
  58. Proteobacteria
    • Proteobacteria
    • The largest and most diverse group in the domain Bacteria.
  59. pseudopodia
    Limblike cellular extensions that help protists and certain blood cells move and feed.
  60. Radiolarians
    Single-celled protists that produce beautiful silicon-based shells.
  61. red algae
    Small delicate aquatic protists that occur as thin filaments or flat sheets and produce red pigments








  62. red tides


    • Dense blooms of certain dinoflagellates that tint water red and produce deadly toxins.

  63. Rickettsias
    Tiny, rod-shaped parasitic bacteria.
  64. saprobe
    An organism that lives on decomposing organic matter.
  65. spirillum (pl. spirilla
    A bacterial cell with a spiral shape.
  66. Spirochetes
    Bacteria with a distinctive spiral shape.
  67. stigma
    [1] The tiny, light-sensitive eyespot of a euglenoid. [2] The sticky top of a flower that serves as a pollen receptacle.
  68. stipe
    The stemlike structure that provides vertical support to an alga.
  69. symbiont
    An organism that lives in a close relationship with an organism of another species.
  70. thermophile
    Prokaryotes that thrive in very hot conditions.
  71. transduction
    The transfer of genes from one bacterium to another via a virus.
  72. transformation
    The process of transferring an inherited trait by incorporating a piece of foreign DNA into a prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell.
  73. True slime mold
    A type of funguslike protist characterized by a plasmodium, a mass of continuous



    cytoplasm surrounded by one plasma membrane and containing many diploid nuclei.
  74. vibrio (pl. vibrios)
    A bacterial cell with a curved rod shape.
  75. Viroid
    An intracellular parasite that affects plants and consists only of small RNA molecules without any protein coat.
  76. Water mold
    A type of funguslike protist containing several nuclei within a common cytoplasm and forming relatively large immobile egg cells; members of the Oomycota.
  77. Asexual reproduction
  78. A type of reproduction in which new individuals arise directly from only one parent.
  79. Biological molecules
  80. Molecules derived from living systems. The four major types are carbohydrates, lipids,
    proteins, and nucleic acids.
  81. Biosphere
  82. That part of the planet that supports life; includes the atmosphere, water, and the outer few
    meters of the Earth’s crust.
  83. Cell:
  84. The basic unit of life; cells are bounded by a lipid‐containing membrane and are generally capable of
    independent reproduction
  85. Class
  86. A taxonomic group comprising members of similar orders.
  87. Communities
  88. Two or more populations of different interacting species occupying the same area.
  89. Control
  90. A check of a scientific experiment based on keeping all factors the same except for the one in
    question
  91. Development:
  92. The process by which an offspring increases in size and complexity from a zygote to an adult.
  93. Division:
  94. A taxonomic group of similar classes belonging to the same phylum, which is often called a division in
    the kingdoms of plants or fungi.
  95. Domain
  96. A taxonomic group composed of members of similar kingdoms.
  97. Ecosystem
  98. A community of organisms interacting with a particular environment
  99. Evolution
  100. Changes in gene frequencies in a population over time
  101. Family:
  102. A taxonomic group comprising members of similar genera.
  103. Gene
  104. The biological unit of inheritance that transmits hereditary information from parent to offspring and
    • controls the appearance of a physical, behavioral, or biochemical trait. A gene is a specific discrete portion of
    • the DNA molecule in a chromosome that encodes an rRNA molecule.
  105. Genus:
  106. A taxonomic group of very similar species of common descent.
  107. Heredity:
  108. The science of inheritance and variation
  109. Hypothesis
  110. A possible answer to a question about how the world works that can be tested by means of
    scientific experimentation.
  111. Kingdom
  112. A taxonomic group composed of members of similar phyla, i.e., Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and
    Protista.
  113. Metabolism:
  114. The sum of all the chemical reactions that take place within the body; includes photosynthesis,
    respiration, digestion and the synthesis of organic molecules.
  115. Motility
  116. The self‐propelled movement of an individual or its parts.
  117. Mutation
  118. Any heritable change in the base sequence of an organism’s DNA.
  119. Natural selection:
  120. The increased survival and reproduction of individuals better adapted to the environment.
  121. Order:
  122. A precise arrangement of structural units and activities; also, in taxonomy, a taxonomic group
    comprising members of similar families.
  123. Organ
  124. A body structure composed of two or more tissues that together perform a specific function.
  125. Organ system
  126. A group of organs that carries out a particular function in an organism.
  127. Organelle
  128. In eukaryotic cells, a complex cytoplasmic structure with a characteristic shape that performs one
    or more specialized functions
  129. Organism
  130. An individual that can independently carry out all life functions.
  131. Phylum:
  132. A major taxonomic group just below the kingdom level, comprising members of similar classes, all
    with the same general body plan. Equivalent to the division in plants.
  133. Population:
  134. A group of individuals of the same species living in a particular area.
  135. Prediction
  136. In the scientific method, an experimental result expected if a particular hypothesis is correct.
  137. Reproduction:
  138. The method by which individuals give rise to other individuals of the same type
  139. Responsive
  140. The tendency of a living thing to sense and react to its surroundings
  141. Scientific method
  142. A series of steps for understanding the natural world based on experimental testing of a
    hypothesis, a possible mechanism for how the world functions.
  143. Theory
  144. A general hypothesis that is repeatedly tested but never disproved.
  145. Tissue:
  146. A group of cells of the same type performing the same function within the body.

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