Card Set Information
DA5 HTN HUSOP
DA 5 HTN
Name the major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease
Identify the complications of hypertension
Target organ damage
· Myocardial infarction
· Heart failure
· Kidney failure (end-stage kidney disease)
· Early death
Primary HTN is caused by __________.
Is primary HTN curable or controlable?
Secondary HTN is caused by _______.
morbid diseases or medications
Is secondary HTN curable or controlable?
Curable by treating underlying cause
Prehypertension blood pressure goal ___________
Return to normal BP with lifestyle modifications
Hypertension blood pressure goal ______
Hypertension with Diabetes or renal diease blood pressure goal ______
Blood Pressure =
Cardiac Output (CO) x Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR)
Activation of α1 receptors causes ________ which _______ BP
Activation of α2 receptors causes _______ BP
Activation of β1 receptors causes ________ which _______ BP
increased heart rate & contractility
Angiotensin II cause _______ sympathetic outflow
__________ are pressure sensing nodes in the _________ and ________
When the baroreceptor sense a drop in BP the cause ______, _______, and ______________
forced cardiac constriction
The Natriuretic Hormone has what effect on the Na/K ATPase?
When the Na/K ATPase is blocked, does this prevent Na excretion or reuptake?
What effect does this have on blood volume & BP?
Na retention will --> ↑blood volume --> ↑BP
Prostacyclin, Bradykinin, & Nitric Oxide are what kind of substances?
Angiotensin II & Endothelin I are what kind of substances?
HTN is defined as a Systolic blood pressure (SBP) _____ OR
Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) _______ with _____ different readings on ____ different days.
Normal BP is
<120 AND <80
120-139 OR 80-89
Stage 1 HTN is
140-159 OR 90-99
Stage 2 HTN is
≥160 OR ≥100
Hypertensive Crisis is
≥180 OR ≥120
A Hypertensive Crisis that has no target organ (non-symptomatic) is a _______________
A Hypertensive Crisis that involves a target organ is a _________.
What are the 3 main ways to lower BP?
What drugs reduce HR?
What drugs reduce volume?
What drugs cause vasodilation?
AHA recommends a BP of _____________ for left
120/80 mm Hg
What compelling indications are required for a JNC7 BP recommendation of 130/80mmHg?
What class of antihypertensives is contraindicated in heart failure?
What 2 classes of drugs are recommended in heart failure?
What 2 classes of drugs are the standard of care post-MI?
What classes of antihypertensives are the standard of care for HTN with diabetes and why?
They are renal protective
What classes of antihypertensives are the standard of care for HTN with CKD and why?
They are renal protective
What classes of drugs are recommended for recurrent stroke prevention?
What antihypertensives should be avoided in asthma and why?
beta 2 receptors in lungs
What antihypertensives should be avoided in AV heart block?
What antihypertensives should be avoided in hyponatremia?
What antihypertensives should be avoided in K > 5 & SCr >2.5?
What antihypertensives should be avoided in pregnancy?
What antihypertensives should be avoided in angioedema?
Stage 1 HTN without compelling indications is usually treated with a _______________. _________, _________, __________, ____________, or a combination may be considered.
Stage 2 HTN is usually treated with a ____________ of a _________ and an _________, _________, ________, or ________
2 drug comb
What antihypertensives are going to be the first line agent for most patients without a compelling indication
JNC-7 suggests starting patients with Stage 2 Hypertension on one antihypertensive agent
True or False
Which diuretic is a more effective antihypertensive thiazide or loop
Which is a more potent diuretic thiazide or loop?
What benefit do thiazide diuretics have in osteoporosis?
Chlorthalidone is ________ more potent than hydrochlorothiazide
What diuretic should be used when CrCl < 30ml/min
What class of drugs does bumetanide belong to?
Triamterene & Aldosterone antagonists are both
levels should be monitored within ____ days of starting a K
SCr & electrolytes should be monitored within ___ weeks of starting a diuretic
________ is the only loop diuretic that does not contain a sulfonamide group
Spironolactone and Eplerenone belong to what class of drugs?
Contraindications of Aldosterone Antagonists include
Severe renal impairment
Lisinopril & Enalapril belong to what class?
For what compelling indications should ACE-Is be used?
SCr & electrolytes should be monitored ________ after starting an ACE-I
ACE-Is are allowed to cause an increase in SCr of no more than a ____ from baseline
ACE-Is may ___K
Contraindications of ACE-Is are
Bilateral Renal Artery Stenosis