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What is the cause of rocky mountain spotted fever? dogs and/or cats?
- ricketsia rickettsii (only ricketsial agent that causes disease)
- cats resistant to dz, dogs only
How is RMSF transmitted? Where and when is it more common?
- ticks (transovarially in tick so nymphs and larvae infected w/o feeding)
- SE states from March-Oct when ticks more active (seasonal)
Is RMSF zoonotic?
yes but rarely acquired from your dog
When do clinical signs emerge with RMSF? What are common presenting signs? Which is often most prominent feature?
- 2-3 days after exposure
- polyarthritis(most prominent)
- vasculitis (rep. in endothelial cells) and antiplatelet Ab
- thrombocytopenia signs; melena, edema
- pulmonary disease
After infection with RMSF, do most dogs get subclinical, acute, or chronic disease?
majority subclinical (no age, sex predilection)
Is lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly more common with RMSF or ehlichiosis?
ehrlichiosis (these are signs of chronicity, RMSF has no chronicity)
How is polyarthritis sample usually described with RMSF?
What CBC are consistent with RMSF?
thrombocytopenia (due to vasculitis)
Why is hyperglobulinemia uncommon with RMSF?
this is a sign of chronicity, RMSF does not have chronicity
What 2 things are needed to diagnose RMSF?
+ titers (IFA) with clinical signs (anemia, thrombocytopenia, polyarthritis)
Are RMSF patients treated as In or Out-patients? What is the treatment?
- in patient b/c need fluid tx (careful due to vasculitis)
- doxycycline or fluoroquinolones
Is fluoroquinolones appropriate for treating RMSF? Ehrlichiosis?
- yes for RMSF
- Not for ehrlichiosis
What is prognosis for RMSF with treatment?
- response often within 24-48 hours
- fair to good prognosis (only 5% die - kidney failure or cardiac)
Is treatment curative for RMSF? Ehrlichia?
permanent immunity likely with RMSF (not ehrlichia)
What is most consistent feature of ehrlichiosis?
does ehrlichiosis affect dogs and/or cats?
dogs only (E.canis)
Is ehrlichiosis passed transovarially in the tick?
no so tick must feed on infected dog (only with RMSF)
Which cell does E. canis usually affect?
Is ehrlicia seasonal?
no, because subclinical infection can show up months to years later; and chronic phase
What are features of acute ehrlichiosis? prognosis
(similar to RMSF) vasculitis and anemia, mononuclear cells infected; most dogs recover with or without treatment
What are common features of chronic ehrlichiosis?
- bleeding tendencies/anemia
- polyarthritis (E. ewingii)
- lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly
If dog recovers from E. canis will he have protective immunity?
no; reinfection possible and serology may remain positive
What is treatment of choice for e.canis?
doxycycline (do NOT use enrofloxacin-won't eliminate infection)
What is prognosis for ehrlichiosis?
- good short term, improvement in 24-48 hours
- chronic may require long term Abs
Who is affected by anaplasmosis?
cats, dogs, sheep, horses, and humans
Who acts as reservoir for anaplasmosis?
rodents and small mammals (same w/RMSF)
What are most common clinical features of anaplasmosis in the dog?
fever, reluctant to move ,thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia
Is there a seasonal feature of anaplasmosis?
acute disease in fall when ticks are active
Where do anaplasmosis morulae reside in the body?
What are diagnostic options for anaplasmosis?
serology or PCR
How do you treat anaplasmosis?
doxycycline - rapid improvement
What is cause of feline infectious anemia?
How is mycoplasma haemofelis transmitted?
- fleas bites
- queen to kitten
How does FeLV affect prognosis of mycoplasma haemofelis? what about FIV?
- FeLV: worsens
- FIV: not worse
Do cats clear mycoplasma infections?
No, can be clinically normal but remain carriers (organism in macrophages)
Is icterus a common feature of mycoplasma?
What are clinical features of mycoplasma?
regen. anemia, cyclic fever, splenomegaly, wt loss
Where could you see mycoplasma organism?
blood smear; on surface of RBC
How is mycoplasma treated?
- doxycycline (esophageal strictures) - rapid response
- cats remain carriers!
What dogs get hemobartonella canis?
splenectomized dogs or those with serious illness/chemotherapy