SA Med, E1, Polysystemic Protozoal Dz's

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SA Med, E1, Polysystemic Protozoal Dz's
2012-09-12 20:10:46
SA Med E1 Polysystemic Protozoal Dz

SA Med, E1, Polysystemic Protozoal Dz's
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  1. what is one of the most prevalent parasites infecting warm-blooded vertebrates, and cats are the only species that can complete its life cycle?
    Toxoplasma gondii
  2. How do cats acquire T.gondii?
    ingestion (any life stage) and transplacentally
  3. what are two main presentations for cats with toxoplasmosis?
    • small bowel diarrhea (self limiting)
    • fatal extraintestinal
  4. What are 3 main systems effected by toxoplasmosis?
    Liver, Lung, CNS (and eyes)
  5. What is chemistry finding that would lead clinician to suspect toxoplasmosis?
    elevated CK due to cysts in muscle tissue
  6. How can you definitively diagnose toxoplasmosis?
    see organism on biopsy (difficult to find)
  7. Are identification of toxoplasmosis cysts in a fecal sample a definitive diagnosis?
    no, only suggestive
  8. Serology/antibody titers do not definitively diagnose toxoplasmosis, but which Ab correlates best w/clinical infection? Why is serology of limited value?
    • IgM
    • antibodies present even in healthy cats and stay positive for life (even w/tx)
  9. What is tx of choice for toxoplasmosis? Response should be quick unless which systems are affected?
    clindamycin; slower for CNS/eye
  10. Which forms of toxo have poorest prognosis?
  11. Why is zoonosis rarely associated with feline contact?
    cats only shed for days/weeks after inoculation but then rarely repeat shedding in feces; cats groom themselves so not often on fur
  12. dogs with clinical T. gondii present similar to cats; however they rarely are clinical unless what? do they shed oocytes in feces like cats?
    • immuno-compromised
    • no fecal shedding in dogs
  13. do dogs pass oocysts of neospora in feces?
  14. How do dogs acquire neospora?
    • ingest bradyzoite
    • transplacental
  15. What is primary signs seen in dogs with neospora infection? Is it fatal?
    • neurological signs
    • hind limb extension, ascending paralysis
    • untreated is fatal
  16. List 3 clinical features of neospora.
    • muscle atrophy
    • polymyositis
    • multifocal CNS disease
  17. What is the concern w/giving glucorticoids in patients who may have neospora?
    steroids can activate bradyzoites in tissue cysts
  18. What is definitive diagnosis for neospora?
    see organism in CSF or tissue
  19. What is treatment of choice? what is prognosis with tx?
    • clindamycin (same as toxo)
    • many still die with tx, better if before CNS signs
  20. Is toxoplasmosis and/or neospora associated w/human abortions?
    only toxoplasmosis
  21. What connection do dogs and cows have with neospora?
    • dogs give to cattle if poop in their feed
    • cow to dog if dog eats infected bovine placenta
  22. What infectious organism mimics IMHA? dogs and/or cats?
    • babesia
    • dogs only in the US
  23. what is the vector for babesia?
    • ticks
    • blood transfusion
  24. What breeds are more prone to babesia infection?
    • grey hounds
    • pit bulls
  25. what are important clinical features of babesia? Acute or chronic presentation?
    • Acute
    • intravascular hemolytic/regen. anemia
    • 2ndary IMHA
    • thrombocytopenia, elevated bilirubin
  26. what are available diagnostics for babesia?
    • PCR to NC state
    • Antibody serology/IFA --> show increasing titers
    • definitive w/demonstration on blood smear
  27. how is babesia treated?
    • supportive (give blood?)
    • multiple drugs used (azithromycin, atovaquone)
    • prevent w/tick control
  28. what makes a dog more prone to babesia?
    immunocompromised, splenectomized