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Pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
Breathing process of air moving into and out of the lungs so that the gases in the air sacs (aveoli) of the lungs are continuosly refreshed.
Gas exhchange that occurss between the blood and alveoli ( oxygen loading and co2 unloading)
Respiratory gas transport
O2 and CO2 are transported to and from the lungs and tissue via the bloodstream
Gas exchange occurs between the blood and the body's tissues in the systemic capillaries.
Volume and pressure
- >During the process of taking air into the lungs (inspiration) the diaphram & intercostal muscles contract, causing the thoracic cavity to increase in size.
- >Volume increases to accomodate the air entering the lungs.
- >As air move into the lungs the pressure decreases.
Volume and pressure
- >During breathing out process ( expiration) the diaphragm & intercostal muscles relax, the lungs recoil, and intrapulmonary volume decreases.
- > gases inside the lung are forced together causing pressure to increases as it forces the gases out.
- >pressure become equal as we breath out.
- >person have narrow passageways
- >expiration becomes an active process.
- >person uses intercostal and abdominal muscles to force air out of the lungs.
- >dependent upon the persons size, gender,age, physical capabilities.
- > rate increased in an unwell person
- >have difficulty breathing out
- >use their abdominal muscles and diaphragm to aid in forcing air out of lungs.
Normal quite breathing
Tidal Volume (TV)
Normal respiration (12 breaths/min: approx 500ml)
Dead space volume (DSV)
30% of air remaining in the conducting zone
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
The amount of air that is forced out of the ungs after tidal volume, amounting to as much as 1200ml
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
Exceeding the normal breathing (TV) involving 2100-3200ml
Residual volume (RV)
The amount of air not able to be expelled from lung- this may be 1200ml
Vital capacity (VC)
- Total of amount of air exchange in the lung.
- Total of tv, irv,and erv