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Holes Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 17 Digestive System
bonelike substaces beneath tooth enamel
smallest of major salivary glands
tooth specialized for grinding
chamber between tongue and palate
projections on tongue surface
cone shaped projection of soft palate
attaches tooth to jaw
chisel shaped tooth
space between the teeth, cheeks and lips
anchors tongue to floor of mouth
portion of tooth projecting beyond gum
the part of the pahynx superior to the soft palate is called the ______
the middle part of the pharynx is called the _______
in inferior part of the pharynx is called the __________
the main secretion of the esophagus
name the four regions of the stomach
the gastric cells that secret digestive enzymes
name the gasteric cells that secret hydrochloric acid
the most important digestive enzyme in gastric juice
the semifluid paste of food particles and gastric juice
name the three portions of the small intestine
define the function of the mesentery
suspends the organs
the valve located between the small and large intestines
mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods into forms that cell membranes can absorb
breaks large pieces into smaller ones without altering their chemical composition
breaks food into simpler chemicals
layer of the wall of the alimentary canal that functions to protection, secretion, and absorbtion
layer of the wall of the alimentary canal that functions to nurishe surrounding tissues, transports absorbed minerals
layer of the wall of the alimentary canal that functions to movements of the tube and its contents
layer of the wall of the alimentary canal that functions to protection and lubrication
rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in the wwalls of certain tubular organs
important in controlling secretions by the gastrointestional tract
the muscular layer controls gastrointestional motility
thick muscular organ that occupies the floor of the mouth
forms the roof of the oral cavity and consists of a hard anteror part and a soft posterior part
hardest structures in the body, they are not considered part of the skeletal system
What are the effects of swollen tonsils?
adenoids enlarge and block the passage between the nasal cavity and pharynx
How many teeth are present in the adult mouth?
What is the composition of enamel?
Ninety-six percent of enamel consists of mineral, with water and organic material composing the rest
salivary gland that secrets a clear watery serous fluid, rich in salivary amylase
salivary gland that secrets some serous fluid with some mucus; more viscous than parotid secretion
salivary gland that secrets the primarily think, stringy mucus
Which salivary glands are the largest?
Which enzyme is present in saliva?
what does Amylase help to digest
splits starch and glycogen molecules into disaccharides
mass of food passing through the gastrointestional tract
a hole in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes. It is located in the right crus of the diaphragm.
at the end of the pyloric canal, the circular layer of fibers in its muscular wall thickens, forming a powerful muscle
is the pyloric sphincter remained closed what would the effect be?
there would be no gastric emptying
substance that gastric glands produce to promote absorbtion of vitamin b12
the slight, taste, smell, or thought of food triggers paprsympathetic relfexes. gastric juice is secreted in response.
food in stomach chemically and mechanically stimulates release of gastrin, which, in turn, stimulates secretion of gastric juice
as food enters the small intestine, it stimulates intestinal cells to release gastrin, which, in turn, promotes the secretion of gastric juice from the stomach wall
carbohydrate digesting enzyme that spilts molecules of starch or glycogen into disaccharides
fat digesting enzyme that breaks triglyceride molecules into fatty aacids and monoglycerides
protein splitting enzymes, each of these enzymes spilts bonds between particular combinations of amino acids in proteins
stimulates the pancreas to secrete abundant fluid when acidic chyme enters the duodenum
fixed to the inner lining of the hepatic sinusoids, remove most of the bacteria from the blood by phagocytosis
yellowish green liquidthat hepatic cells continuously secrete
formed by the union of the common hepatic and cystic ducts
where does the bile duct empty?
What is the function of bile salts?
aid digestive enzymes
Which substance is found in most gallstones?
gastric cells in response to food...increases secretory activiy of gastric glands
cells of the small intestine....increases secretory activiy of gastric glands
gastric cells....inhibits secretion of acid by parietal cells
intestional wall cells in response to fat....inhibits secretion of acid by parietal cells
intestinal wall cells....decreases secretory activity of gastric glands and inhibits gastric motility
cells in the deodenal wall...stimulates pancreas to secrete fluid with a high bicarbonate ion concentration
wall is lined with villi that greatly increase the surface area and aid in mixing and absorbtion
small intestinal wall
firmly, double fold of peritoneal membrane called the ________ ________ drapes like an apron from the stomach over the transverse colon and folds of the small intestine
Where are most nutrients absorbed?
secreted by the small intestine and split peptides into their constituent amino acids
secreted by the small intestine and splits fats into fatty acids and glycerol
microscopic droplet of fat in the blood that forms following fat digestion
What are the parts of the large intestine?
cecum; ascending colon; transverse colon; descending colon; sigmoid colon; rectum
found at the end of our small caecum and located near the beginning of the large intestine
During a colonoscopy, what is the correct sequence that the fiberoptic tube would encounter?
What is absorbed in the large intestine?
Water and lipids
painful, swollen veins in the lower portion of therectum or anus