Chapter 17

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JChristie20
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17060
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Chapter 17
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2010-05-01 20:45:58
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Digestive System
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Holes Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 17 Digestive System
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  1. bonelike substaces beneath tooth enamel
    dentin
  2. smallest of major salivary glands
    sublingual gland
  3. tooth specialized for grinding
    molar
  4. chamber between tongue and palate
    oral cavity
  5. projections on tongue surface
    papillae
  6. cone shaped projection of soft palate
    uvula
  7. attaches tooth to jaw
    periodontal ligament
  8. chisel shaped tooth
    incisor
  9. space between the teeth, cheeks and lips
    vestibule
  10. anchors tongue to floor of mouth
    lingual frenulum
  11. portion of tooth projecting beyond gum
    crown
  12. the part of the pahynx superior to the soft palate is called the ______
    nasopharynx
  13. the middle part of the pharynx is called the _______
    oropharynx
  14. in inferior part of the pharynx is called the __________
    laryngopharynx
  15. the main secretion of the esophagus
    mucus
  16. name the four regions of the stomach
    • fundus
    • cardia
    • body
    • pylori
  17. the gastric cells that secret digestive enzymes
    chief
  18. name the gasteric cells that secret hydrochloric acid
    parietal
  19. the most important digestive enzyme in gastric juice
    pepsin
  20. the semifluid paste of food particles and gastric juice
    chyme
  21. name the three portions of the small intestine
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  22. define the function of the mesentery
    suspends the organs
  23. the valve located between the small and large intestines
    ileocecal valve
  24. mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods into forms that cell membranes can absorb
    digestion
  25. breaks large pieces into smaller ones without altering their chemical composition
    mechanical digestion
  26. breaks food into simpler chemicals
    chemical digestion
  27. layer of the wall of the alimentary canal that functions to protection, secretion, and absorbtion
    mucosa layer
  28. layer of the wall of the alimentary canal that functions to nurishe surrounding tissues, transports absorbed minerals
    submucosa
  29. layer of the wall of the alimentary canal that functions to movements of the tube and its contents
    muscular layer
  30. layer of the wall of the alimentary canal that functions to protection and lubrication
    serosa layer
  31. rhythmic waves of muscular contraction in the wwalls of certain tubular organs
    peristalsis
  32. important in controlling secretions by the gastrointestional tract
    submucosal plexus
  33. the muscular layer controls gastrointestional motility
    myenterix plexus
  34. thick muscular organ that occupies the floor of the mouth
    tongue
  35. forms the roof of the oral cavity and consists of a hard anteror part and a soft posterior part
    palate
  36. hardest structures in the body, they are not considered part of the skeletal system
    teeth
  37. What are the effects of swollen tonsils?
    adenoids enlarge and block the passage between the nasal cavity and pharynx
  38. How many teeth are present in the adult mouth?
    32
  39. What is the composition of enamel?
    Ninety-six percent of enamel consists of mineral, with water and organic material composing the rest
  40. salivary gland that secrets a clear watery serous fluid, rich in salivary amylase
    parotid glands
  41. salivary gland that secrets some serous fluid with some mucus; more viscous than parotid secretion
    submandibular glands
  42. salivary gland that secrets the primarily think, stringy mucus
    sublingual glands
  43. Which salivary glands are the largest?
    parotid glands
  44. Which enzyme is present in saliva?
    Amylase
  45. what does Amylase help to digest
    splits starch and glycogen molecules into disaccharides
  46. mass of food passing through the gastrointestional tract
    bolus
  47. a hole in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes. It is located in the right crus of the diaphragm.
    esophageal hiatus
  48. at the end of the pyloric canal, the circular layer of fibers in its muscular wall thickens, forming a powerful muscle
    pyloric sphincter
  49. is the pyloric sphincter remained closed what would the effect be?
    there would be no gastric emptying
  50. substance that gastric glands produce to promote absorbtion of vitamin b12
    intrinsic factor
  51. the slight, taste, smell, or thought of food triggers paprsympathetic relfexes. gastric juice is secreted in response.
    cephalic phase
  52. food in stomach chemically and mechanically stimulates release of gastrin, which, in turn, stimulates secretion of gastric juice
    gastric phase
  53. as food enters the small intestine, it stimulates intestinal cells to release gastrin, which, in turn, promotes the secretion of gastric juice from the stomach wall
    intestinal phase
  54. carbohydrate digesting enzyme that spilts molecules of starch or glycogen into disaccharides
    pancreatic amylase
  55. fat digesting enzyme that breaks triglyceride molecules into fatty aacids and monoglycerides
    pancreatic lipase
  56. protein splitting enzymes, each of these enzymes spilts bonds between particular combinations of amino acids in proteins

    (3)
    • trypsin
    • chymotrypsin
    • carboxypeptidase
  57. stimulates the pancreas to secrete abundant fluid when acidic chyme enters the duodenum
    secretin
  58. fixed to the inner lining of the hepatic sinusoids, remove most of the bacteria from the blood by phagocytosis
    kupffer cells
  59. yellowish green liquidthat hepatic cells continuously secrete
    bile
  60. formed by the union of the common hepatic and cystic ducts
    bile duct
  61. where does the bile duct empty?
    duodenum
  62. What is the function of bile salts?
    aid digestive enzymes
  63. Which substance is found in most gallstones?
    Cholesterol
  64. gastric cells in response to food...increases secretory activiy of gastric glands
    gastrin
  65. cells of the small intestine....increases secretory activiy of gastric glands
    intestinal gastrin
  66. gastric cells....inhibits secretion of acid by parietal cells
    somatostatin
  67. intestional wall cells in response to fat....inhibits secretion of acid by parietal cells
    intestinal somatostatin
  68. intestinal wall cells....decreases secretory activity of gastric glands and inhibits gastric motility
    cholecystokinin
  69. cells in the deodenal wall...stimulates pancreas to secrete fluid with a high bicarbonate ion concentration
    secretin
  70. wall is lined with villi that greatly increase the surface area and aid in mixing and absorbtion
    small intestinal wall
  71. firmly, double fold of peritoneal membrane called the ________ ________ drapes like an apron from the stomach over the transverse colon and folds of the small intestine
    greater omentum
  72. Where are most nutrients absorbed?
    small intestine
  73. secreted by the small intestine and split peptides into their constituent amino acids
    peptidases
  74. secreted by the small intestine and splits fats into fatty acids and glycerol
    intestinal lipase
  75. microscopic droplet of fat in the blood that forms following fat digestion
    chylomicrons
  76. What are the parts of the large intestine?
    cecum; ascending colon; transverse colon; descending colon; sigmoid colon; rectum
  77. found at the end of our small caecum and located near the beginning of the large intestine
    appendix
  78. During a colonoscopy, what is the correct sequence that the fiberoptic tube would encounter?
    • sigmoid colon
    • descending colon
    • transverse colon
    • ascending colon
    • cecum
  79. What is absorbed in the large intestine?
    Water and lipids
  80. painful, swollen veins in the lower portion of therectum or anus
    hemorrhoids

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