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techniques that improve memory, often through using existing familiar information (e.g. imagery) during the encoding of new information to aid later retrieval and access.
incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event
the persistence of learning over time thru the storage and retrieval of information
long-term potentiation (LTP)
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. believed to be a nueral basis for learning and memory.
long term memory
enduring memories that retain and preserve information for later retrieval over long periods. Long-term memory includes episodic memory (memory of the personal episodes), semantic memory (memory of knowledge); declarative memory (knowing 'that' and procedural memory (knowing 'how'.
Implicit memory, also known as nondeclarative memory, involves recollection of skills, things you know how to do, preferences, etc., that you don't need to recall consciously. (Like riding a bike)
Imagery is simply the formation of any mental pictures. A powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
- Humans remember sounds and words in slightly
- different ways. Memory for visual stimuli is referred to as iconic memory, which can be defined as very brief sensory memory of some visual stimuli, that occur in the form of mental pictures. For example, if I ask you to look at a picture and then close your eyes and try to see thepicture, what you can "see" in your mind's eye is an iconic memory of the image in the picture. Typically, iconic memories are stored for slightly shorter periods of time than echoic memories (auditory memories). Please be aware that both echoic and iconic memories are sensory memories, not types of long-term memory, and thus are very temporary and fade quickly.
- a hippo sized librarian on campus.
- a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process implicit memories for storage.
flash bulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Explicit memory, also known as declarative memory is a type of long-term memory in which we store memories of fact. In addition, explicit memory is divided further into semantic and episodic memories (please look those up for complete definitions). So, if you have memories of things such as when Columbus sailed to America or what day and time your baby brother was born, you have explicit memories
- The process of taking in information, for instance, by extracting meaning from it.
- Any information which we sense and subsequently attempt to process, store, and later retrieve must be brought in through one of the senses and then transformed into some form that our bodies and minds
- understand. The process of breaking the information down into a form we understand is the process of encoding (and we later "decode" the information to recall it). But the process of getting into the memory
- system for storage and later retrieval is encoding.
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 to 4 seconds.
that eerie sense that "I've experience this before" cues from the current event may subconsciously be triggering retrieval of an earlier experience.
organizing things into familiar, organizable units. usually happens automatically.
automatic encoding of incidental information, for instance space, time and frequency, as well as well learned things like word meanings.
the loss of memory
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words