Anatomy Chapter 2 Review ?s

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Anatomy Chapter 2 Review ?s
2012-09-13 01:17:06

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  1. What is the following type of decomposition reaction called 
    A-B-C-D + H2O ___ A-B-C-H + HO-D
  2. The lightest of an atom's main components
    carries a negative charge
  3. Isotopes of an element differe from each other in the number of
    neutrons in the nucleus
  4. The number and arrangement of electrons in an atom's outer energy lefel determines the atom's
    chemical properties
  5. All organic compounds int he human body contain all of the following elements except 
    hydrogen and calcium
  6. A substance containing atoms of different elements that are bonded together is called a
  7. All the chemical reactions that occur in the human body are collectively referred to as
  8. Illustrate a typical decomposition reaction
    AB ____ A + B
  9. The speed or rate of a chemical reaction is influenced by
    • the presence of catalysts
    • the temperature
    • the concentration of the reactants
  10. A pH of 7.8 in the human body typifies a condition referred to as
  11. A _____ is a solute that dissociates to release hydrogen ions and a ____ is a solute that removes hydrogen ions from solution
    • acid
    • base
  12. Chmical reactions in the human body are controlled by specail catalytic molecules called
  13. Which of the following is not a function of a protien?
    metabolic regulation
    storage of genetic info
    storage of genetic information
  14. Complementary base pairing in DNA includes the pairs
    • adenine-thymine
    • cytosine- guanine
  15. What are the three stable fundamental particals in atoms
    • proton
    • neutron
    • electron
  16. What four major classes of organic compounds are found in the body?
    • Protiens
    • Lipids
    • Carbohydrates
    • Nucleic Acids
  17. List three important functions of triglycerides ( neutral fats) in the body
    • Provide a significant energy reserve
    • Serve as insulation and thus act in heat conservation
    • Protect organs by cushioning them
  18. List seven major functions performed by proteins
    • Support
    • Movement
    • Transport
    • Buffering
    • Metabolic regulation
    • Coordinate and control
    • Defense
  19. What three basic components make up a nucleotide of DNA?
    What three basic components make up a nucleotide of RNA?
    • DNA: deoxyribose phosphate, and nitrogenous bases (A, T, C, G)
    • RNA: ribose, phosphate, and nitrogenous bases (A,U,C,G)
  20. What three components are required to create the high-energy compound ATP?
    • adosine
    • phosphate groupds
    • appropriate enzymes
  21. If a polypeptide contains 10 peptide bonds, how many amino acids does it contain?
  22. A dehydration synthesis reaction between glycerol and a single fatty acid would yield a
  23. Explain how enzymes function in chemical reactions
    Enzymes are specialized protein catalysts that lower the actication energy for chemical reactions. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions but are not used up or changed in the process. 
  24. What is a salt? How does a salt differ from an acid or a base?
    • an ionic compound consistion of any cations other than hydrogen ions and any anions other than hydroxide ions. 
    • Acids dissociate and realease hydrogen ions, while bases remove hydrogen ions from solution (usually by releasing hydroxide ions)
  25. Explain the differences among nonpolar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, and ionic bonds.
    Nonpolar covalent bonds have an equal sharing of electrons. Polar covalent bonds have an unequal sharing of electrons. Ionic bonds result from the loss of gain of electrons
  26. In an exergonic reaction
    energy is released during the reaction
  27. The hydrogen bonding that occurs in water is responisble for
    • The high boiling point of water
    • the low freezing point of water
    • the ability of water to dissolve inorganic salts
    • the surface tension of water
  28. A sample that contains an organic molecule has the following consituents: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Is the molecule more likely to be a carbohydrate, a lipid, a protein, or a nucleic acid?
    nucleic acid