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What is the following type of decomposition reaction called
A-B-C-D + H2O ___ A-B-C-H + HO-D
The lightest of an atom's main components
carries a negative charge
Isotopes of an element differe from each other in the number of
neutrons in the nucleus
The number and arrangement of electrons in an atom's outer energy lefel determines the atom's
All organic compounds int he human body contain all of the following elements except
hydrogen and calcium
A substance containing atoms of different elements that are bonded together is called a
All the chemical reactions that occur in the human body are collectively referred to as
Illustrate a typical decomposition reaction
AB ____ A + B
The speed or rate of a chemical reaction is influenced by
- the presence of catalysts
- the temperature
- the concentration of the reactants
A pH of 7.8 in the human body typifies a condition referred to as
A _____ is a solute that dissociates to release hydrogen ions and a ____ is a solute that removes hydrogen ions from solution
Chmical reactions in the human body are controlled by specail catalytic molecules called
Which of the following is not a function of a protien?
storage of genetic info
storage of genetic information
Complementary base pairing in DNA includes the pairs
- cytosine- guanine
What are the three stable fundamental particals in atoms
What four major classes of organic compounds are found in the body?
- Nucleic Acids
List three important functions of triglycerides ( neutral fats) in the body
- Provide a significant energy reserve
- Serve as insulation and thus act in heat conservation
- Protect organs by cushioning them
List seven major functions performed by proteins
- Metabolic regulation
- Coordinate and control
What three basic components make up a nucleotide of DNA?
What three basic components make up a nucleotide of RNA?
- DNA: deoxyribose phosphate, and nitrogenous bases (A, T, C, G)
- RNA: ribose, phosphate, and nitrogenous bases (A,U,C,G)
What three components are required to create the high-energy compound ATP?
- phosphate groupds
- appropriate enzymes
If a polypeptide contains 10 peptide bonds, how many amino acids does it contain?
A dehydration synthesis reaction between glycerol and a single fatty acid would yield a
Explain how enzymes function in chemical reactions
Enzymes are specialized protein catalysts that lower the actication energy for chemical reactions. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions but are not used up or changed in the process.
What is a salt? How does a salt differ from an acid or a base?
- an ionic compound consistion of any cations other than hydrogen ions and any anions other than hydroxide ions.
- Acids dissociate and realease hydrogen ions, while bases remove hydrogen ions from solution (usually by releasing hydroxide ions)
Explain the differences among nonpolar covalent bonds, polar covalent bonds, and ionic bonds.
Nonpolar covalent bonds have an equal sharing of electrons. Polar covalent bonds have an unequal sharing of electrons. Ionic bonds result from the loss of gain of electrons
In an exergonic reaction
energy is released during the reaction
The hydrogen bonding that occurs in water is responisble for
- The high boiling point of water
- the low freezing point of water
- the ability of water to dissolve inorganic salts
- the surface tension of water
A sample that contains an organic molecule has the following consituents: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Is the molecule more likely to be a carbohydrate, a lipid, a protein, or a nucleic acid?