Drug Cards - Week 3

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Author:
kcichy
ID:
17067
Filename:
Drug Cards - Week 3
Updated:
2010-05-03 15:06:23
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pharmacology
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Drug Cards - Week 3
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  1. Albuteral

    Name
    Class
    Proventil, Ventolin

    Class: Sympathomimetic Bronchodilator
  2. Albuterol

    Pharmacology and actions
    • - Selective beta-2 adrenergic bronchodilator
    • - Bronchial smooth muscle relaxation
    • - Minimal beta-1 stimulation, little alpha stimulation
    • - Stimulates CNS
    • - Inhibits histamine release, reducing mucus secretions and mucosal edema
    • - Onset of action: from 5-15 minutes
  3. Albuteral

    Indications

    Contraindications
    • Indications:
    • - Acute attacks of bronchospasm (such as in asthma, anaphylaxis, emphysema, chronic-bronchitis, pneumonia, burns)

    • Contraindications:
    • - Hypersensitivity and symptomatic tachycardia (absolute)
    • - Patients with cardiovascular disorders such as cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension (relative)
  4. Albuteral

    Precautions and side effects
    • - Tremors/dizziness/anxiety
    • - Headache/diaphoresis
    • - Angina/chest pain/palpitations
    • - Tachycardia
    • - CNS Stimulation
    • - Hypertension
  5. Albuteral

    Dosage
    How supplied
    • Adult Dosage:
    • 2.5mg in 3ml saline via hand help nebulizer.
    • May repeat PRN

    • How:
    • Unit dose vials: 2.5mg in 3ml saline (pillow packs)
  6. Vasopressin

    Name
    Class
    Pitressin

    Hormone, Vasopressor
  7. Vasopressin

    Pharmacology and actions
    Vasopressin is a hormone with strong vasopressive and antidiuretic properties but that may precipitate angina and/or AMI
  8. Vasopressin

    Indications

    Contraindications
    • Indications:
    • - To increase peripheral vascular resistance in arrest (CPR) or to control bleeding from esophageal varices

    • Contraindications:
    • - Ischemic heart disease
    • - PVC's
    • - 1st stage of labor
    • - Chronic nephritis with nitrogen retention
  9. Vasopressin

    Precautions and side effects
    • - hypertension
    • - bradycardia
    • - PAC's
    • - heart block
  10. Vasopressin

    Dosage
    Arrest: 40 u IV

    Esophageal varices: 0.2 - 0.4 u/min IV drip
  11. Nitroglycerine

    Name
    Class
    • Name:
    • Nitrostat, Nitrobid, Notrol

    • Class:
    • Nitrate, Anti-anginal
  12. Nitroglycerine

    Pharmacology and actions
    • Cardiovascular effects:
    • - Reduce venous tone; causes blood to pool in peripheral veins, decreasing venous return to the heart (preload)
    • - Decreased peripheral resistance (afterload)
    • - Dilation of coronary arteries (if not already at maximum) and relief of coronary artery spasm

    • Vasodilation of cerebral arteries, increasing oxygen to the brain
    • Generalized smooth muscle relaxation
    • Onset of action: 1 - 2 minutes
  13. Nitroglycerine

    Indications
    Contraindications
    • Indications:
    • - Angina
    • - Chest pain suggestive of an MI
    • - Pulmonary edema

    • Contraindications:
    • - Hypotension
    • - Chest trauma
    • - Cerebral bleeding
    • - Head trauma
    • - Increased ICP
    • - Use of sexually enhancing drugs (Viagra, Cialis, sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) within previous 72 hours
    • - Hypersensitivity
  14. Nitroglycerine

    Precautions and side effects
    - Hypotension: do not give if blood pressure is <90 mmHg systolic ( If hypotension develops, treat with IV fluids and lower the patients head)

    • - Common side effects include:
    • throbbing headache
    • flushing,
    • dizziness,
    • tachycardia
    • burning under the tongue.
    • (These side effects may be used to check potency)
  15. Nitroglycerine

    Dosage
    How supplied
    • Dose:
    • 0.4 mg (1/150 grain) tblet or spray (1 to 2 sprays) Sublingually
    • May repeat every 5 minutes as needed for effect - up to 3 doses. May provide additional doses with Base Hospital Order
    • ***Adults only***

    • Supplied:
    • 0.4 mg tablets (1/150 grain)
    • 0.4 mg in spray canisters that deliver 0.4 mg per spray
  16. Ipratropium Bromide

    Name
    Class
    Atrovent

    Parasympatholytic (anticholinergenic) Bronchodilator
  17. Ipratropium Bromide - Atrovent

    Pharmacology and actions
    • - Bronchodilation by competitive inhibition of cholinergic receptors on bronchial smooth muscle
    • - Decreases respiratory secretions
    • - Abolishes vagally mediated reflex bronchospasm
  18. Ipratropium Bromide - Atrovent

    Indications

    Contraindications
    • Indications:
    • - Asthma, in combination with other bronchodilators
    • - COPD

    • Contraindications:
    • - Hypersensitivity to Atrovent, Atropine or Atropine derivatives
    • - Not to be used as primary treatment for bronchospam
  19. Ipratropium Bromide - Atrovent

    Precautions and side effects
    • - Dry mouth
    • - GI distress
    • - N/V
    • - Nervousness
    • - dizziness
    • - headache
    • - palpitations
    • - blurred vision
  20. Ipratropium Bromide - Atrovent

    Dosage
    How supplied
    • Adult Dosage:
    • 500mcg in 3ml saline via hand held nebulizer

    • How supplied:
    • Unit dose vials: 500mcg in 3ml saline (pillow packs)
  21. Diazepam

    Name
    Class
    Name: Valium

    Class: Anticonvulsant, Benzodiazepine, Sedative, Anti-anxiety
  22. Diazepam - Valium

    Pharmacology and actions
    • - Sedative-hypnotic agent that causes depression of central nervous system and reduces anxiety
    • - Anti-convulsant
    • - Skeletal muscle relaxant
    • - Onset of action: 1-5 minutes IV, 15-30 minutes IM
    • - Peak action: 5-10 minutes
  23. Diazepam - Valium

    Indications
    Contraindications
    • Indications:
    • - Generalized seizures/status epilepticus
    • - Sedation/pre-medication prior to cardioversion for conscious patients
    • - To relax skeletal muscle (spasm)
    • - Anxiety
    • - Chemical restraint
    • - Hyperadrenergic compound overdose

    • Contraindications:
    • - Hypotension
    • - coma
    • - acute alcohol intoxication
    • - Hypersensitivity (absolute)
  24. Diazepam - Valium

    Precautions and side effects
    • - Drowsiness, ataxia, dizziness, confusion, stupor (lack of critical cognitive function) and fatigue
    • - Respiratory and/or cardiac arrest in elderly, the very ill and those with pulmonary disease is possible
    • - Hypotension
    • - Should be given with great caution in patients who have ingested other sedative drugs or alcohol, since apnea may result
    • - Do not mix with other drugs or IV solutions, since precipitation will occur when mixed. Inject as close to the IV catheter site as possible
    • - Valium is SHORT ACTING. Additional doses may be needed to prevent recurrent seizure activity.
  25. Diazepam - Valium

    Dosage

    How supplied
    • Adult Dosage:
    • Seizures:
    • - 5-15 mg slow IV (not to exceed 5mg/min) in increments titrated to seizure control and systolic pressure > 90mmHg. May repeat as in 5-15 min as needed to max dose of 30 mg

    • Premedication prior to cardioversion:
    • - 2-15 mg slow IVP titrated to patient sedation

    • Anxiety:
    • - 2-10 mg IV/IM

    • Chemical restraint:
    • - 5-10 mg IV/IM

    • Hyperadrenergic overdose:
    • - 5-25 mg IV


    • How supplied:
    • - 10mg/2mL of solvent
    • - 20mg/4mL of solvent

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