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  1. What are the two main components of blood?
    Name the formed elements

    • Formed elements:
    • Ertyrocytes (RBCs)
    • Leukocytes (WBCs)
    • Platelets
  2. Name the important characteristics of Plasma and what blood transports
    90% water- solvent for carrying other substances, absorbs heat

    Electrolytes: pH buffering, osmotic balance

    Plasma Protiens: Albumin (buffer) is most common, then globulins (antibodies), and fibrinogen (clotting of blood)

    Transports: nutrients, waste products of metabolism, respiratory gases, hormones
  3. Describr this formed element and its functionImage Upload
    Erythrocytes (RBCs)

    • Gas Transport via hemoglobin (Hb)
    • -transports about 60% of body's O2

    Anucleate when mature

    Lifespan 100-120 days

    4.5 -5.5 mil per mm3
  4. Name the two types of Leukocytes and what they are
    • Granular: granules stain differently with Wright's Stain
    • -neutrophils
    • -eosinophils
    • -basphils

    • Agranular: no visible cytoplasmic granules
    • -Lymphocytes
    • -Monocytes
  5. Name the leukocytes from most common to least common
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas

    • Neutrophils
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  6. Describe this YELLOW ARROW leukocyte and its function(s)
    Image Upload
    Neutrophil: multilobed "crazy" nuclei, pale lilac cytoplasm

    Phagocytize bacteria- numbers increase dramatically during acute infections

    50-70% of leukocyte population

    * takes up both basic and acidic dyes
  7. Describe this RED ARROW leukocyte and its function(s)
    Image Upload
    Eosinophil: bilobed nucleus, looks like alien eyes or dumbbell, stain red or orange in Wright's dye, large granules

    Kills parasytic worms; complex role in allergy and asthma (reduces inflammation)

    2-4% of leukocyte population
  8. Describe this BLUE ARROW leukocyte and its function(s)
    Image Upload
    Monocyte: nucleus is U or kidney shaped, gray/blue crytal like cytoplasm, largest leukocyte

    Phagocytosis into macrophages in tissues; increase dramatically during chronic infections like TB

    3-8% of leukocyte population
  9. Describe thisĀ  GREEN ARROW leukocyte and its function(s)Image Upload
    Lymphocyte: nucleus is spherical or indented with little dark bllue/purple cytoplasm, approx size of RBC

    smallest of the leukocytes

    produce antibodies (gives rise to plasma cells): mount immune system reponse by direct attack or via antibodies

    25%+ of leukocyte population
  10. Describe this leukocyte and its function(s)Image Upload
    Basophil: nucleus lobed in U or S shape with indentations, large dark purple granules in basic dyes

    release histomine (increases inflammation) and other mediators of inflammation; contain heparin

    less than 1% leukocyte population
  11. Name each leukocyte!
    Image Upload
    • A: Basophil
    • B. Lymphocyte
    • C. Monocyte
    • D. Neutrophil
    • E. Eosinophil
    • D. Erythrocytes
  12. What are those tiny purple spots in this slide?Image Upload
    Platelets (thrombocytes): fragments of megakaryocytes

    seal small tears in blood vessels; instrumental to clotting

    platelets + fibrin = clot

    300,000 per mm3
  13. What is wrong with this Erythrocyte?Image Upload
    Sickle Cell anemia
  14. Who is the universal donor and who is the universal recipient?
    Name the most common and least common blood types
    Universal Donor: O-

    Universal Recipient: AB+

    Most common: O(+)

    Least Commone: AB (-)
  15. Describe blood typing
    Antigens or Antigutinogens: determines blood type by clotting/clumping

    Antibodies or Agglutinins: antibodies in plasma; the opposite of Antigens (what doesn't like that blood type)

    Rh- 85% of the population is rh +

    • A blood type: A antigen, Anti-B (antibody)
    • B blood type: B antigen, Anti-A (antibody)
    • AB blood type: A and B antigen, NO ANTIBODY
    • O Blood type: NEITHER ANTIGEN, Anti-A and anti-B(antibody)
  16. What is the average blood volume of adult male and adult female?
    • Male: 5-6L
    • Female 4-5L
  17. What determines whether blood is bright red or dull red?
    How much oxygen it has: bright red is is full of O2, dull red is O2 deficient
  18. List the four types of nutrients found is Plasma, the two gases, and the three ions
    • 1. Glucose
    • 2. Fatty Acids
    • 3. Amino Acids
    • 4. Vitamins

    • GASES:
    • 1. O2
    • 2. CO2

    • IONS:
    • 1. Calcium Ca2+
    • 2. Magnesium Mg2+
    • 3. Sodium Na+
Card Set:
2012-09-13 19:28:28

A&P II Lab exam 1
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