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Describe the Pulmonic (Pulmonary) System
Rigght side of heart to lungs
Describe the Systemic System
Lungs to left side of heart to body (Includes the hemopatic portal system)
Describe how blood flows through the heart, including the vessels, chambers, and valves
Describe the Layers and Muscles of the Heart
Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium
Epicardium: Parietal Layer (Serous Tissue), Visceral Layer (1 layer of simple squamous epithelium)
Pectinate Muscles: found in right and left atria
Papillary Muscles: found in ventricles, chordae tendinae anchor valves to papillary muscles
Trabeculae: thick bands in Venticles
Name the ventricles, valves, and vessels (note where auricles would be located!)
- Aorta and Pulmonary valves are SEMI LUNAR (2 FLAPS)
- 1. Right Atrium
- 2. Pumlmonary Semi-Lunar Valve
- 3. Tri-cuspid Valve
- 4. Cordae Tendinae
- 5. Papillary Muscles
- 6. Right Ventricle
- 7. Interventricular Septum
- 8. Epicardium
- 9. Myocardium
- 10. Left Ventricle
- 11. Bi-cuspid (mitral) valve
- 12. Aortic Semi-Lunar Valve
- 13. Left Atrium
Describe the Coronary Sinus and Vessels
SUPPLY BLOOD TO THE HEART ITSELF
Coronary Sinus: collects coronary venous blood, leads into the right atrium inferior to SVC
2 Coronary Arteries, R/L: right above ASL Valve, lead to coronary vessels supplying the blood to the heart
What are the remnants of fetal heart development?
Ligamentum Arteriosum: Remnant of the Ductus Arteriosus between Pulmonary Trunk and Aorta
Fossa Ovalis: interatrial septum, remnant of fetal blood passageway
What is this?
Moderator Band: connects the right ventricular walls
Label and Explain the electricl pathway
- SA node is the pacemaker
Name the two layers of the pericardial sac
Fibrous layer, visceral layer
Define Ischemia and Anemia
Ischemia: insufficient blood flow
Name the different layers of blood vessel wall
- Tunica Externa (Adventitia)
- Tunica Media
- Tunica Intima
Describe the difference between arteries and veins
- Arteries: carry O2 and nutrients to body cells
- -thicker walls than veins due to higher BP
- -tunica media is thicker due to increased smooth muscle and/or elastic
- -tunica intima is scallaped layer of simple squamous
- -lumen is smaller and rounder than in veins
- Veins: carry CO2 and waste products, low O2 levels (Except pulmonary veins)
- -entire wall is thinner due to lower BP
- -larger veins have one-way SL valves
- -lumen and larger and very irregular
- -tunica intima is a smooth layer of simple squamous
- -greater number of veins than arteries, esp superficially
Why are valves found in veins but not arteries?
The low pressure of the veins makes it more difficult for the blood to get back to the heart.
The blood must flow through the veins AGAINST gravity
Valves prevent the backflow of blood!
(skeletal muscle "pump" and breathing also aide in milking the blood back to the heart)
How are the arteries of pulmonary ciruclation different from those of the systemic system? What condition is indicated by this anatomical difference?
The systemic arteries are much thicker because of the increased pressure to supply blood to the whole body
This anatomical difference is indicated by the elastic recoil in systemic arteries
Distinguish between the artery and vein
Artery is on the left, vein on the right.
What is this?
Capillary- allows for one RBC at a time
Only a singe layer of simple squamous endothelium (with basal lamina)
What is this?
Csrdisc muscle: striated with intercalated discs
What is the function of the Circle of Willis?
Main blood supply to the brain- arterial anastomosis at the base of the brain surrounding the pituitary gland the optic chiasma
If one part gets blocked, there are others to do the work. Like the coronary arteries, this makes sure the brain gets a sufficient blood supply.