# Exam 1

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 Author: cstewart12 ID: 170718 Filename: Exam 1 Updated: 2012-09-15 12:55:16 Tags: Cardio Folders: Description: physics of pulm, A&P, and diff of pulm Show Answers:

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1. Boyle's Law
• presure and volume vary directly (temperature is constant)
2. Charles's Law
• volume and temperature vary directly (pressure is constant)
3. Gay-Lussac's Law
4. Barometric Pressure
Force exerted on the earth’s surface by the atmospheric pressure
5. Ideal Alveolar Gas Equation
PAO2 = (PB – PH2O)FiO2 – PaCO2(1.25)

Partial pressure in the alveolar = (bariometric pressure – partial pressure of water) – fractional inspired O2 – partial pressure of arterial blood gas (1.25)

• Respiratory exchange ratio is the
• 1.25 in the equation
6. Diffusion
Movement of gas from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached
7. Flick's Law
• Rate of gas transfer is directly proportional to surface area of tissue
• (A), and difference in partial pressure of gas between two sides of tissue (P1, P2)
8. Perfusion-limited gas flow
Transfer of gas across alveolar wall is a function of the amount of blood that flows past the alveoli
9. Diffusion-limited gas flow
Movement of gas across alveolar wall is a function of integrity of alveolar-capillary membrane
10. What is WOB?
Work of Breathing, it is the work put into moving into and out of the lungs
11. Driving Pressure
Pressure difference between two points
12. Transairway pressure
• Pressure difference between mouth pressure (Pm) and
• alveolar pressure (Palv)
13. Transmural Pressure
Pressure difference across the airway walls
14. Transpulmonary pressure
• Difference between the alveolar pressure
• (Palv) and the pleural pressure
15. Transthoracic Pressure
Difference between the alveolar pressure(Palv) and the body surface pressure
16. Spontaneous breathing
• Inspiration (active): Diaphragm contracts to enlarge chest cavity, pressure drops moving air into lungs
• Expiration (passive): Diaphragm relaxes to decrease chest cavity, pressure increases forcing gas out of lungs
17. Lung compliance
The amount of air that the lungs will accept for each cmH2O pressure change

• Change in volume (L) per unit pressure (cmH2O)
• ΔV / ΔP
18. Flow (of gases and other fluids)
Movement of a specific volume of fluid in a particular period of time
19. Principle of continuity
If liquid flows through a ridgid pipe, the mass of the fluid entering a tube must equal the mass leaving the tube
20. Hooke's Law
Describes elastance : the ability of matter to return to its natural shape afte external force is removed

Change in pressure per change in volume

ΔP / ΔV
21. Surface tension
Cohesive force of luquid molecules at a liquid-gas interface
22. Laplace's Law

Pressure and radius are inversely related
23. Pulmonary Surfactant
• Film that lines alveoli
• Decreases alveolar surface tension
• produced and stored in type II alveoli cells
• Keeps alveoli from collapsing
24. Two major forces causing an inflated lung to recoil inward
• Elastic properties of the lung
• Surface tension of the liquid film that lines the alveoli
25. Lung dynamics
The movement of gas in and out of the lungs and pressure changes required to do so
26. Poiseuille's Law
• During normal inspiration, bronchial airways get longer and wider
• During exhalation, bronchial airways get shorter and more narrow
• V (with dot) =flow, P=pressure, r=radius
27. Airway resistance
Pressure difference between the mouth and the alveoli
28. Laminar
(type of flow)
Streamlined, orderly flow
29. Turbulent
(type of flow)
Molecules move in a random manner, jumbled mixture of velocities
30. Tracheobronchial (transitional)
(type of flow)
• Occurs in areas where airways branch
• May be laminar or turbulent
31. Devices used to measure flow
• Pneumotachometer*
• Fixed orifice meter
• Thermal meter
• Ultrasonic meter
• Rotating vane anemometer (Wright respirometer)
Anatomic and alveolar
33. Ventilatory rate
respiratory rate (12-20)
34. Tital volume
Volume of air going in and out durign one quiet breath (about 500mL)
35. What makes up the upper respiratory tract?
Nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, pharynx, tongue, epiglottis, soft and hard palates, oral cavities, laryngopharynx, larynx (true vocial cords)
36. What makes up the lower respiratory tract?
Tracheobronchial tree (including the alveoli)
37. Conducting zone
The path for gas to move in and out of the lung (no gas exchange takes place)

Trachea, mainstem bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles

Generations 0-19
38. Function of the upper airway
Conduct air from the outside environment into the body

Heat/cool and humidify air to body temperature

Filter out particles from environment

Smell

Speech
39. Function of Larynx
Passageway between pharynx and trachea

Protects against aspiration

Generates sound for speech

(also used in valsalva maneuver)
40. What makes up the conducting zone?
• Trachea 0
• Main stem bronchi 1
• Lobar bronchi 2
• Segmental bronchi 3
• Subsegmental bronchi 4-9
• Bronchioles 10-15
• Terminal bronchioles 16-19
41. What makes up the respiratory zone?
• Respiratory bronchioles 20-23
• Alveolar ducts 24-27
• Alveolar sacs 28
42. Which generations are cartilaginous?
Trachea, main stem bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi

only conduct air)
43. Which generations are noncartilaginous airways?
Bronchioles, terminal bronchioles

(conduct air and gas exchange)
44. Ribs
• True 1-7
• False ribs 8-10
• Floating ribs 11-12
45. Accessory muscles of ventilation during inspiration
–Scalenus muscles

–Sternocleidomastoid muscles

–Pectoralis major muscles

–Trapezius muscles

–External intercostal muscles
46. Accessory muscles of ventilation during exppiration
–Rectus abdominis muscles

–External abdominis obliquus muscles

–Internal abdominis obliquus muscles

–Transversus abdominis muscles

–Internal intercostal muscles
47. What are the lobes of the lungs?
48. Lung anatomy
49. Sympathetic ANS
–raise HR

–Relax bronchial smooth muscle

–lower secretions

–Pupils widen
50. Parasympathetic ANS
–lower HR

–Bronchial smooth muscle constricts

–raise secretions

–Pupils constrict

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