Exam 1

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cstewart12
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170718
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Exam 1
Updated:
2012-09-15 12:55:16
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physics of pulm, A&P, and diff of pulm
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  1. Boyle's Law
    • presure and volume vary directly (temperature is constant)
  2. Charles's Law
    • volume and temperature vary directly (pressure is constant)
  3. Gay-Lussac's Law
  4. Barometric Pressure
    Force exerted on the earth’s surface by the atmospheric pressure
  5. Ideal Alveolar Gas Equation
    PAO2 = (PB – PH2O)FiO2 – PaCO2(1.25)


    Partial pressure in the alveolar = (bariometric pressure – partial pressure of water) – fractional inspired O2 – partial pressure of arterial blood gas (1.25)

    • Respiratory exchange ratio is the
    • 1.25 in the equation
  6. Diffusion
    Movement of gas from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached
  7. Flick's Law
    • Rate of gas transfer is directly proportional to surface area of tissue
    • (A), and difference in partial pressure of gas between two sides of tissue (P1, P2)
  8. Perfusion-limited gas flow
    Transfer of gas across alveolar wall is a function of the amount of blood that flows past the alveoli
  9. Diffusion-limited gas flow
    Movement of gas across alveolar wall is a function of integrity of alveolar-capillary membrane
  10. What is WOB?
    Work of Breathing, it is the work put into moving into and out of the lungs
  11. Driving Pressure
    Pressure difference between two points
  12. Transairway pressure
    • Pressure difference between mouth pressure (Pm) and
    • alveolar pressure (Palv)
  13. Transmural Pressure
    Pressure difference across the airway walls
  14. Transpulmonary pressure
    • Difference between the alveolar pressure
    • (Palv) and the pleural pressure
  15. Transthoracic Pressure
    Difference between the alveolar pressure(Palv) and the body surface pressure
  16. Spontaneous breathing
    • Inspiration (active): Diaphragm contracts to enlarge chest cavity, pressure drops moving air into lungs
    • Expiration (passive): Diaphragm relaxes to decrease chest cavity, pressure increases forcing gas out of lungs
  17. Lung compliance
    The amount of air that the lungs will accept for each cmH2O pressure change

    • Change in volume (L) per unit pressure (cmH2O)
    • ΔV / ΔP
  18. Flow (of gases and other fluids)
    Movement of a specific volume of fluid in a particular period of time
  19. Principle of continuity
    If liquid flows through a ridgid pipe, the mass of the fluid entering a tube must equal the mass leaving the tube
  20. Hooke's Law
    Describes elastance : the ability of matter to return to its natural shape afte external force is removed

    Change in pressure per change in volume

    ΔP / ΔV
  21. Surface tension
    Cohesive force of luquid molecules at a liquid-gas interface
  22. Laplace's Law


    Pressure and radius are inversely related
  23. Pulmonary Surfactant
    • Film that lines alveoli
    • Decreases alveolar surface tension
    • produced and stored in type II alveoli cells
    • Keeps alveoli from collapsing
  24. Two major forces causing an inflated lung to recoil inward
    • Elastic properties of the lung
    • Surface tension of the liquid film that lines the alveoli
  25. Lung dynamics
    The movement of gas in and out of the lungs and pressure changes required to do so
  26. Poiseuille's Law
    • During normal inspiration, bronchial airways get longer and wider
    • During exhalation, bronchial airways get shorter and more narrow
    • V (with dot) =flow, P=pressure, r=radius
  27. Airway resistance
    Pressure difference between the mouth and the alveoli
  28. Laminar
    (type of flow)
    Streamlined, orderly flow
  29. Turbulent
    (type of flow)
    Molecules move in a random manner, jumbled mixture of velocities
  30. Tracheobronchial (transitional)
    (type of flow)
    • Occurs in areas where airways branch
    • May be laminar or turbulent
  31. Devices used to measure flow
    • Pneumotachometer*
    • Fixed orifice meter
    • Thermal meter
    • Ultrasonic meter
    • Rotating vane anemometer (Wright respirometer)
  32. Phisologic dead space
    Anatomic and alveolar
  33. Ventilatory rate
    respiratory rate (12-20)
  34. Tital volume
    Volume of air going in and out durign one quiet breath (about 500mL)
  35. What makes up the upper respiratory tract?
    Nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, pharynx, tongue, epiglottis, soft and hard palates, oral cavities, laryngopharynx, larynx (true vocial cords)
  36. What makes up the lower respiratory tract?
    Tracheobronchial tree (including the alveoli)
  37. Conducting zone
    The path for gas to move in and out of the lung (no gas exchange takes place)

    Trachea, mainstem bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles

    Generations 0-19
  38. Function of the upper airway
    Conduct air from the outside environment into the body

    Heat/cool and humidify air to body temperature

    Filter out particles from environment

    Smell

    Speech
  39. Function of Larynx
    Passageway between pharynx and trachea

    Protects against aspiration

    Generates sound for speech

    (also used in valsalva maneuver)
  40. What makes up the conducting zone?
    • Trachea 0
    • Main stem bronchi 1
    • Lobar bronchi 2
    • Segmental bronchi 3
    • Subsegmental bronchi 4-9
    • Bronchioles 10-15
    • Terminal bronchioles 16-19
  41. What makes up the respiratory zone?
    • Respiratory bronchioles 20-23
    • Alveolar ducts 24-27
    • Alveolar sacs 28
  42. Which generations are cartilaginous?
    Trachea, main stem bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi

    only conduct air)
  43. Which generations are noncartilaginous airways?
    Bronchioles, terminal bronchioles

    (conduct air and gas exchange)
  44. Ribs
    • True 1-7
    • False ribs 8-10
    • Floating ribs 11-12
  45. Accessory muscles of ventilation during inspiration
    –Scalenus muscles

    –Sternocleidomastoid muscles

    –Pectoralis major muscles

    –Trapezius muscles

    –External intercostal muscles
  46. Accessory muscles of ventilation during exppiration
    –Rectus abdominis muscles

    –External abdominis obliquus muscles

    –Internal abdominis obliquus muscles

    –Transversus abdominis muscles

    –Internal intercostal muscles
  47. What are the lobes of the lungs?
  48. Lung anatomy
  49. Sympathetic ANS
    –raise HR

    –Relax bronchial smooth muscle

    –lower secretions

    –Pupils widen
  50. Parasympathetic ANS
    –lower HR

    –Bronchial smooth muscle constricts

    –raise secretions

    –Pupils constrict

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