Physio Exam 1

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Anonymous
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170788
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Physio Exam 1
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2012-09-13 22:56:06
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UCM Exam Physio
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Physiology of Psychology
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  1. Olfactory
    • Cranial Nerve #1
    • Smell
  2. Optic
    • Cranial Nerve #2
    • Vision
  3. Oculomotor
    • Cranial Nerve #3
    • Eye movement
  4. Trochlear
    • Cranial Nerve #4
    • Eye movement
  5. Trigeminal
    • Cranial Nerve #5
    • Masticatory movements and facial movements
  6. Abducens
    • Cranial Nerve #6
    • Eye movement
  7. Facial
    • Cranial Nerve #7
    • Facial movements and sensation
  8. Auditory Vestibular
    • Cranial Nerve #8
    • Hearing and balance
  9. Glossopharyngeal
    • Cranial Nerve #9
    • Tongue & pharynx movement & sensation
  10. Vagus
    • Cranial Nerve #10
    • Heart, blood vessels, viscera, movement of larynx, & pharynx
  11. Spinal Accessory
    • Cranial Nerve #11
    • Neck Muscles
  12. Hypoglossal
    • Cranial Nerve #12
    • Tongue muscles 
  13. Central Nervous System
    The brain & Sprinal cord
  14. Peripheral Nervous System
    All the neurons & "nerves"in the body that are located outside the brain & spinal cord
  15. Neuron
    A brain cell engaged in informational processing

    Carry out the brain's major functions
  16. Glia 
    (GLUE)

    Aid & modulate neuron's activities
  17. Sensory Neuron
    Neuron that carries incoming information from sensory receptors into the spinal cord & brain
  18. Motor Neuron
    Neuron that carries information from the spinal cord & brain to make muscles contract 
  19. Frontal Lobe
    Cortex anterior to the central sulcus & beneath the frontal bone of the skull

    Function: Executive functions such as decision making

    Same place as fingers
  20. Temporal Lobe
    Cortex lying below the lateral fissure, beneath the temporal bone at the side of the skull

    Functions in connection with hearing and language and musical abilities 

    Same place as thumb
  21. Parietal Lobe
    Cortex posterior to the central sulcus

    Functions: Directing our movements toward a goal or to perform a task, such as grasping an object

    Same place as knuckles
  22. Occipital Lobe
    Cortex at the back of the brain

    Function: Where visual processing begins

    Same as wrist
  23. Why do we study the Brain & Behavior?
    • -The brain is the most complex living organ on Earth
    • -Many behavioral disorders can be explained & possibly cured by understanding the brain
    • -How the brain produces both behavior & human consciousness is a major unanswered scientific question
  24. Cerebral Cortex
    Heavily folded outer layer of brain tissue composed of neurons (cortex=bark)

    Contains Gyri & Sulci
  25. Gyri
    Bumps on the folded brain surface (cerebral cortex)
  26. Sulci
    Grooves of the cortex (cerebral cortex)
  27. Mentalism
    An explanation of behavior as a function of the nonmaterial mind

    Aristotle
  28. Dualism
    A nonmaterial mind & the material body contributes to behavior

    Rene Descartes
  29. Mind-Body Problem
    Quandry of explaining a nonmaterial mind in command of a material body
  30. Materialism
    Behavior can be explained as a function of the nervous system w/o explanatory recourse to the mind


    Alfred Wallace & Charles Darwin
  31. How are traits selected naturally?
    Genetic mutation > Adaptive trait > Increased chances of survival > Trait passed on to offspring
  32. Encephalization Quotient (EQ)
    Measure of brain size obtained from the ratio of actual brain size to the expected brain size for an animal of a particular body size

    Homosapiens have the largest EQ
  33. Brain's Primary Functions
    • -Create a sensory reality
    • -Integrate Information
    • -Produce Behavior (PRIMARY)
  34. Meninges
    • Three layers of protective tissue
    • -Dura Mater (Hard mother)
    • -Arachnoid Layer (Spider's Web)
    • -Pia Mater (Soft mother)
  35. Cerebral Spinal Fluid
    Fills the ventricles inside the brain & circulates around the brain and spinal cord beneath the arachnoid layer
  36. Afferent
    Conducting toward a central nervous system structure
  37. Efferent
    Conducting away from a central nervous system structure
  38. Cerebrum

    Gross anatomical part of the external brain
    Major structure of the forebrain- has two hemispheres

    Most recently evolved-necessary for consciousness

    -Gyrus, Sulcus, & Fissure (A very deep Sulcus)
  39. Cerebellum

    Gross anatomical part of the external brain
    "Little Brain"

    Located in the hind brain

    Function: Involved in the coordination of motor & possibily other mental processes
  40. Brain Stem

    Gross anatomical part of the external brain
    Central structures of the brain, including the hind brain, mid brain, & diencephalon
  41. Surface Blood Vessels

    Gross anatomical part of the external brain
    Anterior, middle, & posterior cerebral arteries
  42. White Matter

    Major internal structure of the brain
    Areas of the nervous system rich in fat-sheathed neural axon that form the connections between brain cells
  43. Gray Matter

    Major internal structure of the brain
    Areas of the nervous system composed of cell bodies & blood vessels 

    Function: collect & modify information or support this activity
  44. Ventricle

    Major internal structure of the brain
    A cavity in the brain that contains cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) that cushions the brain and may maintain brain metabolism. 4 ventricles.
  45. Corpus Callosum

    Major internal structure of the brain
    Fiber system connecting the two cerebral hemispheres to provide a route for direct communication b/w them

    • Right-Spatial
    • Left- Sequential
  46. Nucleus

    A major microscopic structure of the brain
    A group of cells forming a cluster that can be identified with special stains to form a functional grouping
  47. Nerve

    A major microscopic structure of the brain
    Large collection of axons coursing together OUTSIDE the central nervous system
  48. Tract

    A major microscopic structure of the brain
    Large collection of axons coursing together WITHIN the central nervous system
  49. The Spinal Cord

    Know the parts & functions of the Spinal Cord
    • -Controls most body movements
    • -Can act independently of the brain
    • -Spinal reflex
    •   *Automatic movement
    •   *Hard to prevent (brain cannot inhibit)
    •   *Example: Knee jerk reflx (patellar tendon)
  50. The Brainstem

    Know the parts & functions of the brain stem 
    • -Begins where spinal cord enters the skull
    • -Produces movement & creates a sensory world

    • -Three Regions
    •   *Hindbrain
    •   *Midbrain
    •   *Diecephalon
  51. Hindbrain

    Know the parts & functions of the hind brain
    • Evolutionarily the oldest part of the brain
    • Control of movement 

    Contains: Cerebellum, Reticular Formation, Pons, Medulla
  52. Cerebellum

    Know the parts & functions of the hind brain
    • -Controls complex movements & has a role in a variety of cognitive functions
    • -Size of cerebellum increases with the physical speed & dexterity of a species
  53. Reticular Formation

    Know the parts & functions of the hind brain
    • -Netlike mixture of neurons (gray matter) & nerve fibers (white matter)
    • -Stimulates the forebrain: regulation of sleep-wake behavior & behavioral arousal 
  54. Pons & Medulla

    Know the parts & functions of the hind brain
    Pons- Connects cerebellum to the rest of the brain & controls important movements of the body

    Medulla-Rostral end of brain, Vital functions: control of breathing & heart rate 
  55. Midbrain

    Know the parts & functions of the midbrain
    • Tectum (roof of midbrain)
    • -Sensory processing
    • -Produces orienting movements

    • Tegmentum (floor of midbrain)
    • -eye & limb movements
    • -species specific behaviors
    • -perception of pain
  56. Diencephalon

    Know the parts & functions of the Diencephalon
    Hypothalamus: Feeding, sexual behavior, sleeping, temperature regulation, emotional behavior, hormone function(through connections with the pituitary gland)

    Thalamus: sensory processing, motor processing, integrative functions, motivation, memory
  57. The Forebrain

    Know the parts & functions of the forebrain
    -Integrates sensation, emotion, memory, enabling higher cognitive functions.

    Three principle structures: neocortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system
  58. Neocortex

    Know the parts & functions of the forebrain
    6 layers of gray matter

    creates & responds to a perceptual world

    ALOT MORE READ NOTES/BOOK
  59. Basal Ganglia

    Know the parts & functions of the forebrain
    • -Collection of nuclei just below the white matter of the cortex
    • -Controls voluntary movement
    • -Related disorders: Huntington's Corea, Parkinson's, & Tourettes
  60. Limbic System

    Know the parts & functions of the forebrain
    Group of structures between the neocortex & brainstem: cingulate cortex, hippocampus, & amygdala

    Regulation of Emotional & sexual behaviors, memory, & spatial navigation

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