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2012-09-13 23:08:59
PSY 581 Exam

PSY 581: Exam 1
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  1. P3 ERP
    Component that is associated with memory updated speed.
  2. Neuroanatomy
    Anatomy of the nervous system. Refers to the study of the various parts of the nervous system and their respective function. Structures consists of neurons.
  3. Ventral
    Toward the stomach.
  4. Dorsal
    Toward the back.
  5. Anterior
    Toward the front end.
  6. Posterior
    Toward the back end.
  7. Lateral
    Toward the side.
  8. Medial
    Toward the midline.
  9. Superior
    Above another part.
  10. Inferior
    Below another part.
  11. Proximal
    Located close to the point of origin or attachment.
  12. Distal
    Located more distant from the point of origing or attachment.
  13. Ipsilateral
    On the same side of the body.
  14. Contralateral
    On the opposite side of the body (one left and one on the right).
  15. Coronal plane
    A plane that shows brain structures as seen from the front (or frontal plane).
  16. Sagittal plane
    A plane that shows brain structures as seen from the side.
  17. Horizontal plane
    A plane that shows brain structures as seen from above (or transverse plane).
  18. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Part of the nervous system that is incased in bone; the spinal cord and the brain.
  19. Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)
    Part of the nervous system that is NOT incased in bone. Divided into the somatic and autonomic nervous system.
  20. Somatic nervous system (SNS)
    Part of the PNS that controls voluntary muscles and conveys sensory information to the CNS.
  21. Autonomic nervous system
    Part of the PNS that controls involuntary muscles and visceral organs. Sends and receives messages to regulate the automatic behaviors of the body (e.g. heart rate, BP, respiration, digestion, etc.).
  22. Spinal cord
    Part of the CNS found within the spinal column and communicates with the sense organs and muscles below the level of the head.
  23. Bell-Magendie Law
    A law that states that entering dorsal roots carry sensory information and exiting ventral roots carry motor information.
  24. Dorsal root ganglia
    Cell bodies outside the spinal cord that are composed of clustered sensory neurons.
  25. Grey matter
    When it refers to the spinal cord, it is located in the center of the spinal cord and is densely packed with cell bodies and dendrites.
  26. White matter
    When it refers to the spinal cord, it is composed mostly of myelinated axons that carries information rom the gray matter to the brain or other areas in the spinal cord.
  27. Sympathetic nervous system
    Part of the ANS. Network of nerves that prepares organs for rigorous activity. Increases heart rate, BP and respiration. Includes ganglia on the left and right of spinal cord. Mainly uses norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter at the postganglionic synapse.
  28. Parasympathetic nervous system
    Part of the ANS. Facilitates nonemergency response. Decreases functions increased by SNS. Dominant during relaxed states. Axons mostly release acetylcholine (weird because that's excitatory).
  29. Forebrain
    Consists for the Prosencephalon (forward brain), diencephalon (between brain), and telencephalon (end brain)
  30. Midbrain
    Consists of the mesencephalon (middlebrain). Includes the tectum, tegmentum, substantia nigra, inferior and superior colliculus.
  31. Hindbrain
    Consist of the rhombencephalon, metencephalon, myencephalon.
  32. Diencephalon
    Consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus.
  33. Telencephalon
    Consists of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia.
  34. Hindbrain
    Consists of the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. Located at the posterior of the brain.
  35. Brain stem
    Consist of hindbrain structures, midbrain, and central structures of the brain. Including medulla, pons, and cerebellum, pineal gland, thalamus, superior and inferior colliculus, tectum, tegmentum and pons.
  36. Medulla Oblongata
    Located just above the spinal cord and could be regarded as an enlarged extension of the spinal cord. Responsible for vital reflexes such as breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing and sneezing.
  37. Cranial nerves
    Twelve nerves that allow the medulla to control sensations from the head, muscle movements in the head, and many parasympathetic outputs to the organs.
  38. Pons
    Structure that lies on each side of the medulla (ventral and anterior). Along with the medulla it contains the reticular formation and raphe system. It works in conjunction to increase arousal and readiness of other parts of the brain. Anticipates perception or actions.
  39. Raphe system
    Arousal system located in the pons and medulla that is involved in arousal. This system also sends axons to much of the forebrain, modifying the brain's readiness to respond to stimuli.
  40. Reticular formation
    Part of a system that has descending portions that control motor areas of the spinal cord. The ascending portion sends output to much of the cerebral cortex, selectively increasing arousal and attention.
  41. Cerebellum
    Brain structure located in the hindbrain with many deep folds. Helps regulate motor movement, balance, and coordination. Very important for shifting attention between auditory and visual stimuli.
  42. Midbrain
    Comprised of the tectum, superior and inferior colliculus, tegmentum, and substantia nigra.
  43. Tectum
    Part of the midbrain that is the "roof" of the mindbrain.
  44. Superior & Inferior colliculus
    Part of the midbrain located on each side of the tectum and processes sensory information.
  45. Tegmentum
    The intermediate level of the midbrain containing nuclei for cranial nerves and part of the reticular formation.
  46. Substantia nigra
    Gives rise to the dopamine containing pathway facilitating readiness for movement.
  47. Forebrain
    Most anterior and prominent part of the mammalian brain and consist of two cerebral hemispheres. Consist of the outer cortex and subcortical region. Each side receives sensory information and controls motor movement from the opposite side of the body.
  48. Thalamus
    Subcortical structure that relay station from the sensory organs and main source of input to the cortex.
  49. Basal ganglia
    Subcortical structure that is important for certain aspects of movement.
  50. Limbic system
    Consist of a number of other interlinked structures that form a border around the brainstem (e.g. olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus. Associated with motivation, emotion, drives, and aggression.
  51. Hypothalamus
    Small area near the base of the brain that conveys messages to the pituitary gland to alter the release of hormones. Associated with behaviors such as eating, drinking, sexual behaviors and other motivated behaviors. This along with thalamus create the diencephalon.
  52. Pituitary gland
    Hormone producing gland found at the base of hypothalamus. Generates most of hormones in everything that we do.
  53. Basal Ganglia
    Structure comprised of the caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus. Associated with planning of motor movement and aspects of memory and emotional expression.
  54. Basal forebrain
    Comprised of several structures that lie on the dorsal surface of the forebrain.
  55. Nucleus Basal
    Receives input from the hypothalamus and basal ganglia. Sends axons that release acetylcholine to cerebral cortex. Key part of the brains sytem for arousal , wakefulness, and attention. Used to "wake" you up!!!!!
  56. Hippocampus
    A large structure located between the thalamus and cerebral cortex located toward the posterior portion of the forebrain. Critical for storing certains types of memory.
  57. Central canal
    Fluid-filled channel in the center of the spinal cord.
  58. Ventricles
    Four fluid-filled cavities within the brain containing CSF. Fourth, cerebral aqueduct, third, and lateral ventricles.
  59. Cerebrospinal fluid
    Liquid found in brain and spinal cord that provides "cushioning" for the brain. reservoir of hormones and nutrition for the brain and spinal cord.
  60. Meninges
    Membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
  61. Cerebral cortex
    Most prominent part of the mammalian brain and consists of the cellular layers on the outer surface of the cerebral hemispheres. Divided into two halves. Joined by three bundles of axons called the corpus callosum and the anterior and posterior commissure.
  62. Laminae
    Refers to six distinct layers that are parallel to the surface of the cortext.
  63. Columns
    Refers to division in the cortex that lie perpendicular to the laminae.
  64. Cortex
    A large portion of the brain divided into four lobes: occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal.
  65. Occipital lobe
    Lobe located at the posterior end of the cortex. Also known as the striate cortex or the primary visual cortex (V1). Highly responsible for visual input. Damage can result in cortical blindness.
  66. Parietal lobe
    Lobe that contains the postcentral gyrus (primary somatosensory cortex) which is the primary target for touch sensations, and information from muscle-stretch receptors and joint receptors. Also responsible for processing and integrating information about eye, head and body positions from information sent from muscles and joints.
  67. Temporal lobes
    Lobe located on the lateral portion of each hemisphere. Target for auditory information. Responsible for complex aspects of vision including movementand some emotional and motivational behaviors.
  68. Kluver-Bucy syndrome
    Syndrome associated with temporal lobe damage that results in not being afraid of this lobe.
  69. Frontal lobe
    Lobe that contains the prefrontal cortex and the precentral gyrus.
  70. Precentral gyrus
    Known as the primary motor cortex and is responsible for the control of fine motor movement.
  71. Prefrontal cortex
    The integration center for all sensory information and other areas of the cortex (most anterior portion of the frontal lobe). Responsible for higher functions such as abstract thinking and planning. Allows for regulation of impulsive behaviors and control of more complex behaviors. Responsible for working memory.
  72. Binding problem
    Problem that refers to how the visual, auditory, and other areas of the brain produce a perception of a single object. Perhaps the brain binds activity in different areas when they produce synchronous waves of activity.
  73. Phrenology
    Process of relating skull anatomy to behavior. Created and made famous by Francis Gull.
  74. Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)
    Technique that involves the injection of a dye into the blood a passage of x-rays through he head. The scanner is rotated slowly until a measurement has been taken at each angle and a computer constructs the image.
  75. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    Technique that uses strong magnets to image the brain.
  76. Electroencephalograph (EEG)
    Technique that records electrical activity produced by various brain regions.
  77. Positron-emission tomography (PET)
    Technique that records emission of radioactivity from injected radioactive chemicals to produce a high-resolution image.
  78. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF)
    TEchnique in which inert radioactive chemicals are dissolved in the blood where a PET scanner is used to trace their distribution and indicate high levels of brain activity.
  79. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
    TEchnique that uses oxygen consumption in the brain to provide a moving and detailed picture.