Midterm Numero Dos

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bamerb07
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170800
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Midterm Numero Dos
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2012-10-06 15:06:00
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danielle King Anatomy
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Danielle King Anatomy Test number 2
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  1. Describe the basic characteristics of cartilage
    • Avascular
    • Not innervated
    • Amitotic
    • These characteristics are the reason why they don't heal once they are matur
  2. What are the functions of cartilage?
    • Structural support
    • Provides gliding surface at moveable joints
    • Provides a model for bone growth
  3. What is the function of the chondroblast?
    Secrete cartilage matrix and become trapped in a lacuna. Once trapped in a lacuna, they become chondrocytes. These maintain the tissue.
  4. What are the different types of cartilage?
    • 1. Hyaline
    • 2. Elastic
    • 3. Fibrocartilage
  5. Explain and give the functions of hyaline cartilage
    • Most abundant
    • Least specialized
    • *Shiny and white in the body
    • Forms embryonic skeleton
    • Covers the ends of moving bones
  6. Where is hyaline cartilage found?
    • Connects ribs to sternum (costal cartilage)
    • Nose, layrnx, trachea rings, etc...
  7. Describe elastic cartilage and give its function
    • Lost of elastic fibers
    • Most flexible to resist deformation
    • Hyaline and elastic cartilage are surrounded by perichondrium (not at joints though)
  8. What is perichondrium composed of?
    • White fibrous CT (WFCT) and inner layer of stem cells. 
    • Also has fibroblasts
  9. Where can you find elastic cartilage?
    • External ear (auricle)
    • Few pieces of larynx including epiglottis
  10. Describe fibrocartilage and give its function
    • Strongest and no perichondrium
    • Fxn is shock absorption
  11. Where can you find fibrocartilage?
    • Intervertebral discs
    • Menisci
    • Pubic synthesis
  12. Describe the basic characteristics of bone tissue
    • Dynamic! Always remodeling
    • Vascularized
    • Well innervated
    • builds bones (organs)
  13. What are the functions of bones?
    • Support (stability vs. mobility)
    • Protection (Ex: rib cage, skull, vertebrae, pelvic bone)
    • Movement-act as levers
    • Stores minerals (Ex: Calcium , phosphate. Stored in matrix)
    • Energy storage (yellow marrow-adipose CT and areolar CT)
    • Hemopoiesis-produce formed elements of blood (RBC's, WBC's, platelets) in red marrow
  14. What is the funciton of an osteoblast?
    • Make and secrete osteoid (organic bone matrix-ground substance and fibers but not minerals)
    • These get trapped in a lacuna and differentiate into osteocytes which maintain the tissue
  15. What is lamella?
    • Collagen fibers running in parallel directions stacked on top of each other
    • These make up bone tissue
  16. What are the different bone cells?
    • Osteoprogenitor cells (bone stem cells-from mesenchyme)
    • Osteoblasts
    • Osteocyte
    • Osteoclasts
  17. What differentiates osteoblasts from osteocytes?
    Osteocytes have long processes for metabolic exchange with other osteocytes
  18. What is an osteoclast and what is its function?
    • Large and multinucleate
    • Resident macrophages for bone
    • Secrete acid to release minerals from matrix
    • Release lysosomal enzymes to dissolve collagen
  19. What are the specific bone tissues?
    • 1. Compact bone
    • 2. Spongy bone
  20. Explain the structure of compact bone
    • stronger
    • External within a bone
    • Osteon-structure of compact bone formed by concentric lamellae
    • Central canal in middle which contains NAVL (Nerves, arteries, veins and lymphatic vesicles)
    • Osteocytes in lacunae found between concentric lamellae
    • Projections are found in canaliculi within lamellae
    • Orient to withstand stress
    • Perforating canals connect different central canals to each other and to the periosteum (WFCT and stem cells) and on inside is the marrow (yellow or red)
    • Interstitial lamellae fill spaces between osteons
    • Circumferential lamellae are found at periphery
  21. What kind of marrow with you find in spongy bone?
    Red Marrow surrounds spongy bone
  22. What kind of marrow will you find in the medullary cavity?
    Yellow marrow
  23. Explain the structure of spongy bone
    • Light weight
    • Provides space for red marrow
    • Trabeculae-made of parallel lamellae
    • Canaliculi open to endosteum (WFCT and stem cells)-red marrow
    • Trabeculae remodel along compression and tension lines
  24. What are the different types of bone ossification?
    • 1. Intramembranous ossification
    • 2. Endochondral ossification
  25. What is the process of intramembranous ossification?
    • Bone develops within mesenchyme
    • Location: flat bones of skull, some facial bones, part of clavicle (center)
    • 1. Stem cells clump together in mesenchyme. Some differentiation into osteoprogenitor cells --> become osteoblasts
    • 2. Osteoblasts secrete osteoid (in several centers)
    • 3. Bone matrix becomes mineralized
    • 4. Osteoblasts get trapped in lacunae--> now osteocytes
    • 5. Bone built from inside out
    • 6. Peripheral mesenchyme makes periosteum
    • 7. Peripheral bone tissue gets remodeled into compact bone
  26. Explain the process of endochondral ossification
    • Bone developing within cartilage
    • Hyaline cartilage model dies and gets replaced by bone
    • Location: Lings bones, ends of clavicles
    • 1. Hyaline cartilage model built from mesenchyme, covered in perichondrium
    • 2. Chondrocytes in diaphysis will hyperthrophy (cells enlarge)-->surrounding matrix of cartilage mineralizes-->cuts off their nutrients-->chondrocytes die-->surrounding matrix deteriorates leaving lots of spaces behind
    • 3. Meanwhile...blood vessels arrive at perichondrium. Bring stem cells and osteoblasts. This becomes periosteum. osteoblasts build a bone collar around diaphysis
    • 4. Blood vessels grow into spaces in diaphysis (left by dying cartilage) Vessels bring in osteoblasts-->begin construction of bone tissue at primary ossification center
    • 5. Repeat step #2 and #4 at epiphyses-->forming secondary ossification centers
    • 6. 1* ossification center begin to form the medullary cavity from the inside, out
    • 7. Hyaline cartilage left at the ends is articular cartilage and at the epiphyseal growth plates (allow bone to grow in length)
    • 8. At puberty, bone growth starts to out pace cartilage growth and grwoth plate closes and what's left is a thin line of compace bone called the epiphyseal line. 
  27. What is appositional growth and how does it work?
    • Growth in girth
    • Osteoclasts in endosteum are enlarging marrow (medullary cavity) while osteoblasts in periosteum enlarge the bone (circumferential lamellae)
  28. What are sesamoid bones and where can they be found?
    • Develop in tendons in response to stress.
    • Fxn: give a mechanical advantage. More efficient lever system. 
    • Ex: Patella, base of thumb and big toe
  29. Alveolus
    A socket, such as those into which the teeth are seated
  30. Condyle
    A rounded process for articulation, usually covered with articular cartilage, such as the condyles on the femur
  31. Crest
    A prominent ridge or border of bone such as the hip bone.
  32. Eminence
    A rounded prominence such as those on the frontal bone of the forehead
  33. Epicondyle
    A projection above a smooth articular eminence, such as on the femur
  34. Facet
    A small area that is smooth and usually covered with cartilage, such as on the thoracic vertebrae for rib articulation
  35. Fissure
    A slit between bones such as the orbital fissure
  36. Foramen
    A hole to allow passage of blood vessels or nerves, such as the optic foramen
  37. Fossa
    A depressed area that is usually broad and shallow, such as the orbit of the eye
  38. Groove
    A narrow furrow in the bone, traces the path of a blood vessel
  39. Head
    A large rounded end of a bone, as on the humerus
  40. Line
    A narrow ridge of bone, less prominent than a crest
  41. Meatus
    A canal or passage, such as the external auditory meatus
  42. Process
    A bony prominence or prolongation
  43. Ramus
    An arm-like bar of a bone, literally means a branch
  44. Sinus
    A cavity in a bone, such as the maxillary sinus
  45. Spine
    A more or less sharp projection, such as the spinous process of a vertebra
  46. Sulcus
    A groove, such as the bicipital groove on the humerus
  47. Trochanter
    A very large, usually blunt process for muscle attachment, such as the trochanters on the femur
  48. Tubercle
    A small rounded eminence, such as the rubercle of a rib
  49. Tuberosity
    A large rounded eminence, such as the ischial tuberosity
  50. What is an articulation?
    Joints-where 2 pieces of supporting CT meet
  51. What are the different functional classifications of articulations?
    • 1. Synarthrosis-allows no movement
    • 2. Amphiarthrosis-allows a little movement
    • 3. Diarthosis-allows free movement
  52. What types of joints are there?
    • 1. Synostosis
    • 2. Fibrous joint
    • 3. Cartilaginous joint
    • 4. Synovial Joint
  53. Explain synotosis joints?
    • Bone
    • Example: Frontal, scarum, os coxae
  54. Explain fibrous joint?
    • 1. Suture
    • Ex: sagital suture
    • 2. Gomphosis
    • Ex: Tooth is socket
    • 3. Syndesmosis
    • Ex: Uses a ligament. Inserosseous membrane in between ulna and radius
  55. Explain cartilaginous joints
    • 1. synchondrosis-filled with hyalina cartilage
    • Ex: Epiphyseal growth plate. No movement
    • 2. symphysis-filled with fibrocartilage 
    • Ex: Pubic symphysis, intervertebral disc
  56. Explain synovial joint
    Fluid filled cavity
  57. What do all synovial joints have in there structures?
    • 1. synovial cavity
    • 2. Cavity filled with synovial fluid 
    • 3. Synovial membrane
    • 4. Fibrous capsule
    • 5. Articular cartilage
  58. What is synovial fluid made from and what is its function?
    • Made from filtering blood-consistency of egg whites
    • Fxn: Lubrication and shock absorption
  59. What is synovial membrane composed of and what is its function?
    • Areolar CT
    • Secretes synovial fluid
    • Lines Cavity
  60. What is a fibrous capsule composed of and what is its function?
    • Made of WFCT
    • AKA fibrous layer
    • FXN: Structural reinforcement. Anchors to periosteum
  61. What is the articular cartilage's structure in synovial joints?
    Hyaline cartilage without the perichondrium
  62. What are synovial joints surrounded by?
    • Outside the cavity...
    • 1. Tendons-muscle to bone
    • 2. Ligaments-bone to bone
    • -"Extracapsular" outside the joint 
    • -Ex: MCL, LCL
    • -"Intracapsular" within the joint
    • -Ex: ACL, PCL
  63. What are some possible accessories found at some synovial joints?
    • 1. Bursae
    • 2. Tendon sheaths
    • 3. Fat pads
    • 4. Articular discs
  64. What are bursae and what are their functions?
    • Pockets of synovial membrane. Ravioli shaped extension of synovial membrance and filled with synovial fluid.
    • Fxn: Reducing friction at 1 point. Have lots of mast cells-"bursitis"
  65. What are tendon sheaths and what are their functions?
    • "Hot dog bun"
    • Same idea as bursa but hot dog bun shaped
    • Ex: Bicep tendon, anterior wrist
  66. What are fat pads and what are their functions?
    • Piece of adipose CT
    • Provides cushion as joint changes
  67. What are articular discs and what are their functions?
    • Ex: Menisci, TMJ
    • Made of fibrocartilage
    • Accessory to synovial joint
    • Fxn: Shock absorption, imporves fit between bones
  68. What are some different types of joint injuries?
    • Herniated disc
    • Sprain
    • Strain
    • Arthritis
  69. What is a herniated disc?
    nucleolus leaks into annulus fibrosus
  70. What is the difference between a sprain and a strain?
    • A sprain is a stretch/tear to a ligament
    • A strain is a stretch/tear to a muscle
  71. What are the different kinds of arthritis?
    • 1. Osteoarthritis-degeneration of articular cartilage
    • 2. Rhumatoid arthritis-auto immune disorder attacks synovial membrane
    • 2. Gout-uric acid crystals in synovial cavity
  72. What are the general functions of muscle tissue?
    • 1. Contractile (due to special organelles)
    • 2. Elastic (due to elastic fibers) Passively returns to resting length
    • 3. Extensible-can return to resting length due to contraction of an opposing muscle
    • 4.Excitable-responds to electrical stimulation
  73. What are the functions of muscles?
    • 1. Movement of the body, of substances through the body (blood, urine, food) of the air through the respiratory tract. Hair as well (arector pili muscle)
    • 2. Generating heat-thermoregulation
    • -Ex: Shivering
    • 3. Support-posture, muscle tone, pelvic floor muscles
    • 4. Protection-where there's no bone 
    • -Ex: Abdominal muscles, guarding entrances and exits
  74. What are the specific muscle tissues?
    • 1. Striated voluntary-skeletal MT
    • 2. Striated involuntary-Cardiac MT
    • 3. Smooth involuntary-Smooth MT
  75. Explain the difference between involuntary and voluntary MT
    • -Voluntary means you are consciously able to control it if you want to. Like the diaphragm for example
    • -Involuntary means you are unable to consciously control it. Like the heart or arector pili muscles for example
  76. Explain the structure and function of skeletal MT
    • Build muscles (organs)
    • -Only 1 that belongs to the muscular system
    • -Multiple peripheral nuclei
    • -1 cell=1 muscle fiber
    • -Striated voluntary
  77. Explain the structure and function of cardiac MT
    • -Cardiovascular system
    • -1-2 central nuclei
    • -Intercalated discs for between connecting tissues. Tons of desmosomes and gap junctions
    • -Intrinsic beat-can beat all on its own
    • -Builds the heart
    • -Involuntary striated
  78. Explain the structure and function of smooth MT
    • -In walls of internal organs, blood vessels, iris of eye, arector pili muscle
    • -Single central nuclei
    • -No striations means no sarcomere
    • -Nuclei are in the cell
    • -Smooth involuntary
  79. How are muscles named?
    • 1. Body region (Ex: brachialis)
    • 2. Number of origin points (Ex: biceps brachii)
    • 3. Origin and Insertion (sternocleidomastoid)
    • 4. Size (Gluteus maximus)
    • 5. Action (Adductor longus)
    • 6. Shape (Deltoid, Rhomoid) Extensor carpi radialus longus
  80. What are the different types of muscle actions?
    • 1. Flexion/extension (Ant/Posterior plane) Minimize angle=flexion
    • 2. Plantar flexion (tip toes)/Dorsiflexion (on heels)
    • 3. Abduction (Out)/Adduction (in)
    • 4. Elevation/Depression
    • 5. Rotation
    • 6. Medial rotational/lateral rotation
    • 7. Protraction/Retraction (Jaw, scapulae)
    • 8. Inversion/Eversion (checking dog poop on shoe)
    • 9. Pronation (palm posterior)/Supination ("Eat soup") Radius and ulna
  81. What is the skeletal muscle heirarchy and what is each layer composed of?
    • 1. Epimysium-WFCT
    • 2. Muscle (organ)
    • 3. Perimysium-in between areolar CT and WFCT
    • 4. Fascicle
    • 5. Endomysium-areolar CT
    • 6. Muscle fiber (cel
  82. What are the different functional classifications of joints?
    • 1. Synarthrosis-allows no movement
    • 2. Amphiarthrosis-allows a little movement
    • 3. Diarthrosis-Allows free movement
  83. What are the are the different types of bone joints?
    • Synostosis
    • Ex: Frontal, sacrum, os coxae
  84. What are the different types of fibrous joints and what are they composed of?
    • WFCT
    • 1. Suture (synarthrosis)
    • Ex: Sagital suture
    • 2. Gomphosis (Synarthrosis)
    • Ex: Tooth in socket
    • 3. Syndesmosis (amphiarthrosis) -Uses a ligament (band of WFCT)
    • Ex: Interosseous membrane in between ulna and radius
  85. What are the different types of cartilaginous joints and what are they made of?
    • 1. Synchondrosis (synarthrosis)
    • Filled with hyaline cartilages
    • Ex: Epiphyseal growth plate
    • 2. Symphysis (Amphiarthrosis)
    • Filled with Fibrocartilage
    • Ex: Pubic symphysis, Intervertebral discs
  86. What are the different types of fluid filled cavity articulations?
    Synovial joint (Diathrosis)
  87. What do all synovial joints have?
    • 1. Synovial cavity
    • 2. Cavity filled with synovial fluid 
    • 3. Synovial membrane
    • 4. Fibrous capsule/fibrous layer
    • 5. Articular cartilage
  88. What is the function of cavities filled with synovial fluid?
    Lubrication and shock absorption
  89. What is the synovial membrane composed of and what is it's function?
    • Areolar CT
    • Secretes synovial fluid
    • Lines cavity
  90. What is the fibrous capsule/fibrous layer made of and what is it's function?
    • Made of WFCT
    • For structural reinforcement
    • Anchors to periosteum
  91. What is the structure of articular cartilage?
    • Hyaline cartilage
    • Cartilage without perichondrium
  92. What are synovial joints surrounded by?
    • 1. tendons
    • 2. ligaments
    • Possible accessories:
    • 1. Bursae
    • 2. Tendon Sheaths
    • 3. Fat pads
    • 4. Articular Discs
  93. What are bursae?
    • Pockets of synovial membrane. 
    • Ravioli shaped extension of synovial membrane filled with synovial fluid
    • Fxn: reducing friction at 1 point. Lots of mast cells!
  94. What are tendon sheaths?
     Pockets of synovial membrane hot dog shaped extension of synovial membrane filled with synovial fluid
  95. What are fat pads?
    • Piece of adipose CT
    • Provides cushion as joint changes
  96. What are articular joints and what is their function?
    • Ex: Menisci, TMJ
    • Made of fibrocartilage
    • Accessory to synovial joint
    • Fxn: Shock absorption, improves fit between bones
  97. What are some different joint injuries?
    • Herniated disc
    • Sprain
    • Strain
    • Dislocation
    • Arthritis
  98. What are the different types of arthritis?
    • 1. Osteoarthritis
    • Degeneration of articular cartilage
    • 2. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Auto immune disorder-attacks synovial membrane
    • 3. Gout
    • Uric acid crystals in synovial cavity
  99. Describe muscle tissue actions
    • -Contractile-due to special organelles
    • -Elastic-due to elastic fibers. Passively returns to resting length
    • -Extensible-can return to resting length due to contraction of opposing muscle
    • -Excitable-responds to electrical impulses/stimulation
  100. What are the functions of muscle tissue?
    • 1. Movement of body
    • 2. Movement of substances through the body
    • Ex: blood, urine, food
    • 3. Movement of air through respiratory tract
    • 4. Movement of hair-arector pili muscle
    • 5. Generating heat-thermoregulation
    • Ex: shivering
    • 6. Support-posture, muscle tone, pelvic floor muscles
    • 7. Protection where there's no bone
    • Ex: Abdominal muscles, guarding entrances and exits
  101. What are the different specific muscle tissues?
    • Striated voluntary-skeletal MT
    • Striated involuntary-cardiac MT
    • Smooth involuntary-smooth MT
  102. Describe skeletal MT
    • Builds muscles (organs)
    • Only MT that belongs to muscular system
    • Multiple peripheral nuclei
  103. Describe striated involuntary
    • Cardiac MT
    • Builds the heart
    • Cardiovascualr system
    • Intercalated discs for between connecting tissues
    • Tons of desmosomes and gap junctions
    • Intrinsic beat-can beat all on its own!
  104. Describe smooth involuntary MT
    • In walls of internal organs, blood vessels, iris of eye, arector pili muscle
    • No striations means no sarcomere
    • Nuclei are in cell
  105. What is the integumentary system composed of?
    • Skin with a bunch of accessories
    • Accessories include hair, nails, glands adn sensory receptors
  106. What are the functions of the skin?
    • Protection
    • -Physical and chemical barrier
    • -Immune barrier
    • -water loss
    • -UV
    • Temperature regulation
    • -blood vessels in dermis
    • -Eccrine sweat glands
    • Sensation
    • -sensory receptors
    • -hair
    • Secretion
    • -sweat glands
    • -pheromones
    • -sebum
    • Vitmain D Synthesis
  107. What are the major layers of the skin?
    • 1. Epidermis
    • 2. Dermis
  108. What are the different types of skin and how do you tell the difference?
    • 1. Thin skin. Majority of skin. Has hair and 4 layers
    • 2. Thick skin. On palms of hands and soles of feet. Very thick epidermis and has 5 layers
  109. What are the different layers of the epidermis and give a characteristic of each.
    • 1. Stratum basale-1st layer that sits on BM. Highly mitotic keratinocytes. These get pushed up or down. Regenerative layer
    • 2. Stratum spinosum"Spiney layer" Has desmosomes to resist stretch. Keratinocytes have lots of desmosomes
    • 3. Stratum granulosm "grainy" cells begin to fill with keratin
    • 4. Stratum lucidum "light" only in thin skin
    • 5. Stratum corneum-dead keratinocytes slough off. Cells fill with keratin killing cells inside. 
  110. What are the different epidermis cells?
    • 1. Keratinocytes
    • 2. Melanocytes
    • 3. Langerhans Cells
    • 4. Merkel cells
  111. What are the functions of keratinocytes?
    • 90% of cells
    • Fxn: Protection and waterproof barrier
  112. What are the functions of melanocytes?
    • Produce melanin-pigment which is passed to keratinocytes so they can protect their DNA from UV radiation
    • Natural protectant
    • Located in stratum basale
  113. What are th functions of Langerhans cells?
    • Phagocytes-immune cells
    • Phagocytize bacteria and cancer cells
    • Easily damaged by UV-found in stratum spinosum
  114. What are the functions of Merkel cells?
    • Sense fine touch
    • In stratum basale
    • Stimulates merkel disc (part of a neuron)
  115. What are the different types of skin cancer?
    • 1. basal cell carcinoma-in stratum basale
    • 2. Squamous cell carcinoma-in stratum spinosum
    • 3. Melanoma-in melanocytes-spreads quickly
  116. What are the different dermis layers?
    • 1. Papillary layer
    • 2. reticular layer
  117. What can you find in the papillary layer of the dermis?
    • -Made of dermal papillae-these increase surface area for metabolic support and it allows epidermis and dermis to lock together
    • -Composed of areolar CT
    • -Rows are called dermal ridges which push up to form friction ridges on the surface of the skin
    • -Lots of capillaries
    • -Free nerve endings
    • -Meissner's corpuscle
  118. What can you find in the reticular layer of the dermis?
    • -Composed of dense irregular CT
    • -Lots of collagen and elastic fibers
    • -Pacinian corpuscle
    • -Ruffini corpuscle
    • -Lots of blood vessles
    • -Hair follicles in thin skin
    • -Different glands
  119. what is the function of meissner's corpuscle?
    sense touch
  120. What is the function of pacinian corpuscles?
    Sense deep pressure and vibration
  121. What is the function of Ruffini corpuscles?
    sense distortion
  122. What are the epidermal derivitives?
    • hair
    • nails
    • glands
  123. What is the function of hair?
    • Temperature regulation
    • UV protection
    • Sexual recognition
    • Distribute pheromones
    • filtration (nose and ear)
    • Sensation
  124. What is the structure of hair?
    • Column of dead keratinocytes covered by a cuticle
    • Housed in a follicle (i hair per) surrounds root vs. shaft
    • Hair papilla at base of follicle
    • Capillaries and free nerve endings
    • Matrix-dividing cells
    • Arector pili muscle
  125. What are the three types of glands found in the dermis?
    • 1. Sebaceous glands
    • 2. Eccrine sweat glands
    • 3. Apocrine sweat glands
  126. What is the function of sebaceous glands?
    • Always associated with follicles
    • Secrete sebum into follicle
    • Moisturize skin and hair and fight against pathogens
    • uses Holocrine secretion
  127. What is teh function of eccrine sweat glands?
    • Uses merocrine secretion
    • Secrete sweet sweat directly to surface of skin
    • Evaporative cooling
  128. What is the function of apocrine sweat glands?
    • Secrete stinky sweat
    • More proteins and lipids
    • Only in hair follicles with puberty hair
    • Distribute pheromones
  129. Give the basic characteristics of cartilage
    • -Avascular
    • -Not innervated
    • -Amitotic
    • Doesn't heal once mature
  130. What are the functions of cartilage?
    • 1. Structural support
    • 2. Provides gliding surface at moveable joints
    • 3. Provides a model for bone growth
  131. What is a chondroblast and what is its function?
    • Secrete cartilage matric and become trapped in a lacuna-turn into a chondrocyte. These maintain the tissue.
    • Matrix is made of gelatinous ground substance and fibers
  132. What are the specific types of cartilage?
    • 1. Hyaline
    • 2. Elastic
    • 3. Fibrocartilage
  133. What are some characteristics of hyaline cartilage and where would you find it?
    • -Surrounded by perichondrium
    • -Most abundant
    • -Least specialized
    • -Forms embryonic skeleton
    • -Covers the end of moving bones
    • -Connects ribs to sternum (costal cartilage)
    • -Can find in nose, larynx, trachea rings, etc...
  134. What are the basic characteristics of elastic cartilage and where would you find it?
    • -Lots of elastic fibers
    • -Most flexible to resist deformation
    • Found in external ear, few pieces of larynx including epiglottis
    • Surrounded by perichondrium
  135. What is the perichondrium composed of?
    WFCT and an inner layer of stem cells
  136. What are the characteristics of fibrocartilage and where would you find it?
    • Strongest
    • Shock absoprtion
    • Improves fit of bones
    • No perichondrium
    • Ex: intervertebral discs, menisci, pubic symphysis
  137. Describe the characteristics of bone tissue
    • Dynamic-Always remodeling
    • Vascularized
    • Well innervated 
    • Build bones (organs)
  138. What are the functions of bones?
    • Support (stabiulity vs. Mobility)
    • Protection (Ex: rib cage, skull, vertebrae, pelvic bone)
    • Movement-act as levers
    • Stores minerals (Ex: Calcium, phosphate, etc) Store in matrix
    • Energy storage-yellow marrow (adipose and areolar CT)
    • Hemopoiesis-produce formed elements of blood (WBCs, RBCs, platelets) in red marrow
  139. Describe osteoblasts and their function
    • Make and secrete osteoid (organic bone matrix-ground substance and fibers but not minerals)
    • These get trapped in lacuna-differentiate into osteocytes which maintain the tissue
  140. What are the different bone cells and what are their functions?
    • 1. Osteoprogenitor cell-bone cells from mesenchyme-these turn into osteoblasts which get trapped in their matrix which becomes mineralized where they then become osteocytes.
    • 2. Osteocytes-Have long processes for metabolic exchange with other osteocytes
    • 3. Osteoclasts
    • -Large and multinucleate
    • -Resident marcophages for boen
    • -Secrete acid to release minerals from the matrix
    • -Release lysosomal enzymes to dissolve collagen
  141. Describe compact bone
    • -Stronger
    • -External within bone
    • -Osteon-structure of compact bone
    • -Osteocytesin lacunae found between concentric lamellae-projections are found in canaliculi within lamellae
    • -Orient to withstand stress
    • -Perforating canals connect different central canals to each other and to the periosteum (WFCT and stem cells) and on inside is the marrow (yellow or red)
    • -Interstitial lamellae fill spaces between osteons
    • -Circumferential lamellae found at periphery
  142. What is the structure of an osteon?
    • Formed by concentric lamellae
    • Central canal in middle contains NAVL
  143. Where will you find yellow marrow?
    Medullary cavity
  144. Where will you find red marrow?
    Surrounding spongy bone
  145. Describe spongy bone
    • -Light weight
    • -Provides space for red marrow
    • -Trabeculae-made of parallel lamellae
    • -Canaliculi open to endosteum (WFCT and stem cells)-Red marrow
    • -Trabeculae remodel along compression and tension lines
  146. What are the two different types of ways bones develop?
    • 1. Intramembranous ossification
    • 2. Endochondral ossification
  147. Describe intramembranous ossification
    • Bone develops within mesenchyme
    • 1. Stem cells clump together in mesenchyme. SOme differentiate into osteoprogenitor cells-these become osteoblasts
    • 2. Osteoblasts secrete osteoid (in several centers)
    • 3. Bone matrix becomes mineralized
    • 4. Osteoblasts get trapped in lacunae-now they are osteocytes
    • 5. Bone is built from inside out
    • 6. Peripheral mesenchyme makes periosteum
    • 7. Peripheral bone tissue gets remodeled into compact bone
  148. What kind of bones are developed from intramembranous ossification?
    Flat bones of skull, some facial bones, center part of clavicle
  149. Describe endochondral ossification
    • -Bone developing within cartilage
    • Hyaline cartilage model dies adn gets replace by bone
    • 1. Hyaline cartilage model built from mesenchyme. Covered in perichondrium
    • 2. Chondrocytes in diaphysis will hyperthrophy (cells enlarge)-surrounding matrix of cartilage mineralizes-cuts off their nutrients-chondrocytes die-surrounding matrix deteriorates leaving lots of spaces behind
    • 3. Meanwhile...blood vessels arrive at perichondrium. bring stem cells and osteoblasts. This becomes periosteum. Osteoblasts build a bone collar around diaphysis
    • 4. Blood vessels grow into spaces in diaphysis (left by dying cartilage) vessels bring in osteoblasts-begin construction of bone tissue at 1* ossification center
    • 5. Repeat step #2 and #4 at epiphyses-forming 2* ossification center
    • 6. Meanwhile...osteoclasts arrive at 1* ossification center and begin to form the medullary cavity from the inside, out
    • 7. Hyaline cartilage left at the ends is articular cartilage and the epiphyseal growth plates (allow bone to grow in length)
    • 8. At puberty, bone growth starts to outpace cartilage growth and growth plate closes and what's left is a thin line of compace bone called the epiphyseal line

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