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What are the two most common upper respiratory viruses affecting cats?
Are most carriers of feline upper resp. infections clinical or subclinical?
subclinical (so can be shedding w/o us knowing)
Which UR virus in cats is associated with damaged nasal turbinates?
Which UR virus is associated with vesicles and oral ulceration?
Which UR virus is associates with dendritic ulcers on the cornea?
What UR virus is associated with chronic conjunctivitis?
What lab tests are routinely performed to diagnose these UR viral infections?
none, usually presumptive diagnosis since knowing the exact virus won't even tx plan
Should these cats with UR viral infection be treated as in patient our out?
out if possible to reduce spread to other patients
What can you give a cat with herpes to interrupt the viral replication?
lysine (essential amino acid)
Is routine vaccination recommended for herpes and calici? chlamydophila? bordetella?
- herp/calic: yes, all cats to protect against SEVERITY
- chlamyd: optional
- bord: not routinely needed
What are benign growths in the nasopharynx of cats? Usually young or old cats?
- nasopharyngeal polyps
- kittens, young cats
Where may nasopharyngeal polyps originate from?
What are clinical features of cats presenting w/nasopharyngeal polyps?
- *Respiratory and Neuro signs*
- upper airway obstruction
- nasal discharge (2ndary infection/irritation)
- otitis externa, media, interna (head tilt, nystagmus)
- Horner's Syndrome
What will provide definitive diagnosis of nasopharyngeal polyps?
histopath (inflammatory, fibrous tissue)
What is treatment for polyps? what is the prognosis?
- traction avulsion - often curative but may recur of involves osseous bullae
- excellent prognosis (+/- transient Horner's)
Are most nasal tumors in dog/cat benign or malignant? what kind to dogs get? cats?
- majority malignant
- dog: carcinomas
- cats: lymphoma, adenoma, SCC
Are nasal tumors usually old or young animals? doliocephalic or brachycephalic?
What is most common clinical sign for nasal tumors?
- chronic nasal discharge, usually unilateral
- (also see facial deformity and neuro abnormalities)
How are nasal tumors definitively diagnosed?
- Is metastisis common?
- no, but if it does, usually regional lymph nodes
What is tx of choice for nasal tumors?
- chemotherapy of little help unless lymphoma
What is prognosis for nasal tumors if untreated? with treatment?
- untreated = poor
- w/radiation in dog = mean survival 13 months w/good quality of life
- cats= depends on type of tumor (can live yrs if tx lymphoma)
Cryptococcus neoformans produces what clinical signs in cats compared to dogs?
- cat: nasal cavity, CNS, eyes, skin, SQ
- dog: CNS mostly
- *lungs effected in both spp.
What is a normal pathogen in many animals that can become pathogenic in young dogs, causing chronic nasal disease?
How do nares appear externally with aspergillus? What can be found deeper in the nasal mucosa?
- nares are crusty, ulcerated, depigmented
- plaques invade nasal mucosa
How do you definitively diagnose aspergillus? what are other helpful diagnostic tools?
- histo is definitive (impression smear from biopsy)
- rhinoscopy to see plaques
- CT scan to see detruction of nasal turbinates, soft tissue mass
What is tx of choice for aspergillus? what should you do before administering this treatment?
- topical clotrimazole infusion
- make sure cribiform plate is intact (CT scan)
What is common etiology of laryngeal paralysis? What endocrine diseases should be ruled out?
- idiopathic (geriatric onset)
- r/o; hypothyroidism and Addison's
What else do dogs with idiopathic laryngeal paralysis also have?
- esophageal dysfunction (worry about asp.pneumonia)
- generalized neuropathy over course of year
How do you diagnose laryngeal paralysis?
light plane of anesthesia and laryngoscope to visualize arytenoids; Dopram as resp. stimulant can help
What is anatomical abnormalities associated with brachycephalic syndrome?
- stenotic nares,
- elongated soft palate,
- everted laryngeal saccules
- laryngeal collapse
- hypoplastic trachea (English bull dog)