SA Med, E1, Feline Viruses
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What is the deadliest infectious disease of the cat?
feline infectious peritonitis
What is the virus that causes FIP? Where does this virus reside in the patient?
- corona virus
- enterocytes of GIT
What is the defining characteristic of coronavirus becoming FIP?
mutation that enables replication in macrophages
Are coronavirus and FIP 2 separate viruses?
no, they are phenotypic variants (biotypes) of the same virus
What are 3 descriptive characteristics that define FIP?
- pyogranulomatous inflammation
- exudative fibrinous polyserositis
Is corona virus contagious? is FIP?
- corona is highly contagious (fecal oral)
- FIP can not be directly transmitted from cat to cat
What is the peak age of incidence for developing FIP?
6mo - 3 years (but any age can be effected)
Is FIP seen in pure bred cats?
yes some have genetic susceptibility (and wild cats too!)
what can increase chance of corona mutating into FIP?
- viral load, immune impairment, steroids, sx, concurrent disease (FeLV, FIV +)
Do cats completely clear corona virus?
- healthy carriers often shed for months to LIFE
- 1/3 healthy + cats actively shed
True or False: onset of clinical signs for FIP are often insidious, non specific and non localizing.
Is FIP fatal or curable?
virtually always progressive and fatal
Which type of effusion is most common with wet FIP?
Describe gross findings in a patient with dry and wet FIP.
- fibrinous exudate on all organs/yellowish
- viscous fluid if effusive
- pyogranulomatous inflammation on viscera
What is the difference between intestinal FIP that is diffuse v. focal?
- diffuse: pyogranulomatous enteritis w/ chronic diarrhea
- focal: pyogran. mass (tumor like)
What is a very important CBC finding in a patient with FIP?
- elevated total protein due to elevated globulins
- A/G ratio: <0.8
Describe common findings if fluid is analyzed from abdominal effusion.
- clear, golden yellow, stay colored
- sticky, fibrinous
- proteinacious (4-10g/dL)
- globulins >50%
- hi WBC count
- pyogranulomatous exudate on cytology (PMNs)
What does it mean if corona virus antibody test is positive?
cat has been exposed to corona virus at some time
Are a large or small percentage of healthy cat population positive for FCoV antibodies?
large % (most NEVER develop FIP)
Can serology determine active from past infection of FCoV?
Is PCR a helpful diagnostic tool for FIP?
not confirmatory test bc can't always distinguish between mutated and nonmutated FCoV
What are preferred specimens for PCR for FIP?
body cavity effusions and tissue biopsies (not blood)
What is best confirmatory test for FIP?
histopathology (esp if combined with immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence)
How do you treat FIP?
no effective treatment, palliative but highly fatal disease
Is FIP vaccine recommended for routine use?
- no, only for cats entering cattery and has to be >16wk old
- no evidence that vx induces clinically relevant protection
How is FeLV transmitted? What age cat is most susceptible?
- vertical (nursing)
- horizontal (prolonged exposure to saliva)
- <4 months
Is FeLV found in pure bred catteries?
most have completely eliminated
Is FeLV resistant in the environment?
no, easily destroyed
Where does FeLV invade that can cause the poorest prognosis for the patient?
bone marrow (circulation of virus infected leukocytes and plt - persists)
Some cats exposed to FeLV never get infected. What is the most important factor determining resistance to infection?
age (resistance in cats over 4months)
What type of infection do most cats exposed to FeLV get? Can they fully recover from this type of infection?
- transient then rejected by immune system
- Results in full clinical recovery
True of False: Cats with FeLV can potentially eliminate the virus at any stage, even if they have been a persistent carrier.
If a cat has a latent infection w/ FeLV, would he show up positive on ELISA or IFA test? Will he eliminate this virus on his own?
- most have uneventful elimination within 6-9 months
What form of FeLV infection is eventually fatal? By what age do these cats usually die?
- persistent infection (continuous shedding and viremia)
- ~4 years
What is an important CBC finding on cats with FeLV?
nonregenerative anemia that is normocytic or macrocytic
What form of cancer can patients with FeLV develop? Do most cats w/FeLV get this cancer?
- lymphoma and leukemia
- (some get hyperplastic lymph nodes, which is not necessarily neoplastic)
When is FeLV usually diagnosed?
routine screening test in asymptomatic pet
What are common immune mediated disorders that go with FeLV?
- IMHA & ITP
- also polyarthritis, glomerulonephritis, SLE
At what age can you start testing for FeLV? Are vaccines recommended?
- at any age
- at risk cats only to reduce risk of infection
Are FeLV screening tests looking for antigen or antibody? Which test is preferred for screening? Which is confirmatory?
- screen: ELISA (high sensitivity)
- confirm: IFA (hi specificity)
What does it mean to have positive IFA test for FeLV?
- Antigens for FeLV are intracellur in WBCs or platelets
- (bone marrow involvement = poor prognosis)
What does it mean to have positive ELISA for FeLV? Of the 4 types of infection, which will test + on this test?
- soluble antigens are in serum/plasma (antigenemia)
- transient and persistent carriers test +
If ELISA is positive for FeLV, what can you do to confirm?
- retest in 4-6 weeks then again at 3 months to distinguish peristent from transient infection
- or do IFA as confirmatory
what is preferred sample for IFA test?
- blood smear
- bone marrow smear
Will cats who are treated for FeLV still test positive?
How do cats acquire FIV?
- **bite wounds (saliva)
- in utero/during birth/semen
what is most common clinical abnormality with FIV?
- stomatitis, gingivitis and chronic URI
- lympho-plasmacytic inflammation
Cats with FIV have a higher risk for neoplasia. Is the virus a direct of indirect cause?
What is confirmatory test for FIV? What is screening test? What are these tests testing for?
- confirm: western blot (circulating antibody)
- screen: SNAP, ELISA, IFA (circulating antibody)
If a cat is vaccinated for FIV, will he show up positive on ELISA tests?
At what age do you test cats for FIV? How long post exposure before they show up positive on antibody tests?
- 1-6 months post (so retest negatives)
Are FIV vaccines routinely used?
no; cross reacts with testing and efficacy not proven
What are two other names for feline parvovirus? Do we routinely vaccinate for this?
- "Feline Distemper"
- "Feline Panleukopenia"
- yes, very effective against parvo enteritis
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