A&P Lecture - Exam 1 (VOCAB)

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A&P Lecture - Exam 1 (VOCAB)
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2012-09-14 13:36:04
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Lecture Exam VOCAB
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A&P Lecture - Exam 1 (VOCAB)
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  1. Abdominopelvic Quadrant: 
    One of four divisions of the anterior abdominal surface. 
  2. Abdominopelvic Region
    One of nine divisions of the anterior abdominal
  3. CT, CAT (computerized [axial] tomography): 
    An imaging technique that uses Xrays to reconstruct the body’s three-dimensional structure.
  4. Disease
    A malfunction of organs or organsystems resulting from a failure of homeostatic regulation.
  5. DSA (digital subtraction angiography):
    A technique used to monitor bloodflow through specific organs, such as the brain, heart, lungs,or kidneys. X rays are taken beforeand after a radiopaque dye is administered, and a computer “subtracts” detailscommon to both images.
  6. Embryology:
    The study of structural changesduring the first two months of development.
  7. Histology:
    The study of tissues.
  8. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging):
    An imaging technique that employs amagnetic field and radio waves to portray subtle structural differences.
  9. PET (positron emission tomography) scan 
    An imaging technique that shows thechemical functioning, as well as the structure, of an organ.
  10. Radiologist:
    A physician who specializes inperforming and analyzingradiological procedures.
  11. Spiral-CT:
    A method of processing computerizedtomography data to provide rapid, three-dimensional images of internal organs.
  12. Ultrasound:
    An imaging technique that usesbrief bursts of high-frequency sound waves reflected by internal structures.
  13. X rays:
    High-energy radiation that canpenetrate living tissues.
  14. Cholesterol:
    A steroid, important in the structure of cellular membranes, that, in highconcentrations, increases the risk of heart disease
  15. Mole(mol), millimole (mmol): 
    A quantity of an element or compound that has a weight in grams equal to its atomic or molecular weight
  16. Omega-3 fatty acids:
    Fattyacids, abundant in fish flesh and fish oils, that have a double bond threecarbons away from the end of the hydrocarbon chain. Their presence in the diethas been linked to reduced risks of heart disease and other conditions.
  17. Radioisotopes:
    Isotopes with unstable nuclei that spontaneously emit subatomic particles or radiationin measurable amounts.
  18. Benign tumor:
    A mass or swelling in which the cells usually remain within a connective-tissue capsule; rarely life threatening.
  19. Cancer:
    An illness caused by mutations leading to the uncontrolled growth and replicationof affected cells.
  20. Dextran
    A carbohydrate that cannot cross cell membranes; commonly administered in solution to patients after blood loss or dehydration
  21. DNAfingerprinting:
    Identifying an individual on the basis of repeating nucleotide sequences in hisor her DNA.
  22. Invasion:
    Thespread of cancer cells from a primary tumor into surrounding tissues.
  23. Malignant Tumor:
    A mass or swelling in which the cells no longer respond to normal controlmechanisms, but divide rapidly.
  24. Metastasis:
    The spread of malignant cells into distant tissues and organs, where secondary tumorssubsequently develop. 
  25. Normal Saline:
    A NaCl solution that approximates the normal osmotic concentration of extracellular fluids.
  26. Oncogene:
    A cancer-causing gene created by a somatic mutation in a normal gene involved with growth, differentiation, or cell division.
  27. Primary Tumor:
    The mass of cells in which a cancer cell initially developed.
  28. Secondary Tumor: 
    A colony of cancerous cells formed by metastasis.
  29. Tumor:
    A mass or swelling produced by abnormal cell growth and division.
  30. Abscess:
    The accumulation of pus within an enclosed tissue space.
  31. Adhesions: 
    Restrictive fibrous connectionsthat can result from surgery, infection, or other injuries to serous membranes.
  32. Ananaplasia: 
    An irreversible change in the sizeand shape of tissue cells.
  33. Antiangiogenesis Factor: 
    A secretion, produced by chondrocytes, that inhibits the growth of blood vessels.
  34. Ascites:
    The accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, usually caused by liver or kidney disease or heart failure.
  35. Dysplasia:
    A reversible change in the normalshape, size, and organization of tissue cells.
  36. Exfoliative cytology:
    The study of cells shed orcollected from epithelial surfaces.
  37. Liposuction:
    A surgical procedure to removeunwanted adipose tissue by sucking it out through a tube.
  38. Metaplasia:
    A reversible structural change that alters the character of a tissue. 
  39. Necrosis: 
    Tissue destruction that occurs after cells have been injured or destroyed; a result of the release of lysosomal enzymes through autolysis. 
  40. Pathologists: 
    Physicians who specialize in the study of disease processes.
  41. Pericarditis:
    An inflammation of the pericardial lining that may lead to the accumulation of pericardial fluid 
  42. Peritonitis: 
    An inflammation of the peritoneum after infection or injury. 
  43. Pleural Effusion:
    The accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavities as a result of chronic infection or inflammation of the pleura.
  44. Pleuritis:
    An inflammation of the pleural cavities. This condition may cause the production of a sound known as a pleural rub.
  45. Regeneration:
    The repairing of injured tissues that follows inflammation. 

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