AnP test 2

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AnP test 2
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2012-09-23 20:17:27
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AnP test 2
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  1. how many pairs of cranial nerves are associated with the brain?
    12
  2. name cranial nerves 1-4 (OOT)
    • olfactory
    • optic
    • oculomotor
    • trochlear
  3. name cranial nerves 5-8
    • Trigeminal
    • Abducens
    • Facial
    • Vestibulocular
  4. name cranial nerves 9-12
    • Glossopharyngeal
    • Vegus
    • Accessory
    • Hypoglossal
  5. The Olfactory Nerves
    Where do the nerves pass?
    where do the fibers synapse?
    sensory or motor?
    • through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone
    • in the olfactory bulbs
    • purely sensory
  6. The Optic Nerves 
    arise from the _______
    Pass through the ____ _____, converge and partially cross over at the ____ _____
    sensory or motor?
    • retinas
    • optic canals,optic chiasma
    • sensory
  7. The Oculomotor Nerves
    Innervate __ out of ___ of the extrinsic eye muscles
    Functions? (4)
    sensory or motor
    • 4,6,
    • raising eyelid 
    • directing eyeball
    • constricting iris (parasypathetic)
    • controlling lens shape
    • both
  8. The Trochlear Nerves
    Innervates the _____ _____ muscle of the eye
    sensory or motor?
    • superior oblique
    • motor
  9. The Trigeminal Nerves 
    The _____ cranial nerves
    What are the three divisions?
    supplies motor fibers to?
    The ____ sensory nerve of the ____ and _____
    sensory or motor?
    • largest 
    • Opthalmic, Maxillary, Mandibular
    • The muscles of mastication
    • Great, head and face
    • Both
  10. The Abducens
    Innervates the _____ ______ muscle of the eye. 
    sensory or motor?
    • lateral rectus
    • motor
  11. The Facial Nerves 
    connected to taste in which portion of the tongue?
    what is its motor function?
    sensory or motor?
    • anterior 2/3rds 
    • both
  12. The Vestibulocochlear Nerve
    what are its two divisions?
    what do each control?
    sensory or motor
    • cochlear and vestibular
    • cochlear = hearing
    • vestibular = equilibrium
    • sensory
  13. The Glossopharyngeal Nerves
    what are its motor functions?
    sensory funtion?
    • innervation of part of the tongue and pharynx for swallowing 
    • taste from the posterior 1/3rd of tongue
  14. The Vegas Nerve
    The ______ cranial nerve
    the only cranial nerve to extend beyond the _____ and ____
    what type of motor fibers are most of the fibers?
    what do they help regulate?
    • longest
    • head and neck
    • parasympathetic
    • activities of the heart, lungs, and abdominal viscera
  15. The Accessory Nerves
    the only nerves to have dual innervation from what two areas?
    which muscles do they innervate?
    sensory or motor?
    • brain and spinal cord
    • trapezius, and sternocleidomastoid
    • motor
  16. The Hypoglossal Nerve
    where does it innervate?
    what are its functions?
    • muscles of the tongue
    • swallowing and speech
  17. what are the nerves associated with the muscles of the eye and which muscle?
    • oculomotor - 4 out of 6 muscles 
    • trochlear - 5th muscle (superior oblique)
    • abducens - 6th muscle (lateral rectus)
  18. How many pair of SPINAL nerves are there?
    31
  19. Are the spinal nerves sensory, motor or both?
    both
  20. what areas of the spine are these nerves and how many in each area?
    • cervicle - 8
    • thoracic - 12
    • lumbar - 5
    • sacral - 5 
    • coccygeal - 1
  21. each spinal nerve connects to the spinal cord via?
    2 roots
  22. what are the 2 roots the spinal nerves connect to the spinal cord with?
    • ventral or anterior
    • dorsal or posterior
  23. Ventral roots contain what type of fibers and from where?
    Fibers innervate _________
    • motor (efferent) fibers, from the ventral horn motor neurons
    • skeletal muscles 
  24. Dorsal (posterior) roots contain what kind of fibers and from where?
    they conduct impulses from what?
    • sensory (afferent), from neurons in the dorsal root ganglia
    • from the peripheral receptors
  25. what do dorsal and ventral roots unite to form?
    this formation then emerges from the spine via the?
    • Spinal nerves
    • intervertebral foramina
  26. Dorsal root assosiation tool 
    D/P/S/A =?
    Dorsal/Posterior/Sensory/Afferent
  27. Ventral Association Tool
    V/A/M/E = ?
    Ventral/Anterior/Motor/Efferent
  28. Each spinal nerve branches into mixed rami, name the 4?
    • dorsal rami
    • larger ventral ramus
    • meningeal branch
    • rami communicantes
  29. dorsal rami contain nervers the serve what area?
    dorsal part of the trunk
  30. larger ventral ramus contains nerves that serve what?
    remaining parts of the trunk as well as the upper and lower limbs
  31. the meningeal branch branch from where and enter where?
    they serve what area?
    • branch from the spinal nerve and enter the intervertebral foramen.
    • serves ligiments, dura, blood vessels, intervertibral discs, facet joints, and periosteum of the vertebrae.
  32. rami communicantes contain what type of nerves?
    these nerves send info to and from what?
    • autonomic nerves
    • viseral organs
  33. Which Ventral Rami form Plexus?
    all except T2-T12 
  34. what are the 4 plexus?
    • cervical
    • brachial
    • lumbar
    • sacral
  35. ventral rami of t2-t12 are what type of nerves and supply what muscles?
    • intercoastal nerves
    • supply muscles of the ribs, anterolateral thorax and abdominal wall
  36. if it has              its this plexus
    C-C                    ?
    C-T1                  ?
    L-L                    ?
    L-S                      ?
    • C-C = Cervical
    • C-T1 = Brachial
    • L-L = lumbar
    • L-S = Sacral
  37. Brachial Plexus 
    Formed by ventral rami of which vertebrae?
    it gives rise to the nerves that innervate what?
    • C5-C8 and T1
    • Upper limbs
  38. what are the 5 nerves of the brachial plexus
    • axillary 
    • muscleocutaneous
    • median - REMEBER CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME
    • ulnar - FUNNY BONE
    • radial - 
  39. Lumbar Plexus L-L
    where does it innervate?
    what major nerve is in lumbar plexus?
    where does this nerve innervate?
    • Thigh and abdominal wall 
    • Femoral Nerve - PATELLAR REFLEX
    • innervates quadriceps and skin of thigh and surface of leg
  40. Sacral Plexus L-S
    what areas does it serve
    buttock, lower limb and pelvic structures
  41. what is the major nerve of the sacral plexus 
    sciatic nerve
  42. The Sciatic nerve is the 
    • a) shortest and thinest
    • b) weakest and most fragile nerve in the body
    • c) longest and thickest nerve in the body
    • d) none of the above
  43. Where does the sciatic nerve innervate?
    Hamstring
  44. what is a dermatome 
    the area of skin innervated by the cutaneous branches os a single spinal nerve
  45. which spinal nerves participate in dermatomes?
    all but C1
  46. what do most dermatomes do to prevent complete numbness with the destruction of a single spinal nerve?
    overlap
  47. what are the 2 kinds of reflexes ?
    • inborn
    • learned
  48. which reflex is intrinsic, rapid, involuntary?
    inborn
  49. which reflex is aquired?
    learned
  50. what is the order of a reflex arc (5 things)
    • Receptor
    • Sensor/Afferent neuron
    • Integration/reflex center
    • Motor/Efferent neuron
    • Effector
  51. interneuron:
    connects motor and sensory neurons, only in grey matter
  52. during a spinal reflex what part of the CNS is responsable for the integration of sensory information and a response transmitted to the motor neurons
    • a) brain
    • b) ganglia
    • c) spinal cord
    • d) none of the above
  53. where do cranial reflexes occur?
    brain
  54. where do the pathways for cranial reflexes lay?
    through cranial nerves and the brain stem
  55. what is the integration center for spinal reflexes 
    spinal cord
  56. what are the effectors for spinal reflexes?
    skeletal muscle
  57. what is testing of somatic reflexes important to?
    assesing the condition of the nervous system
  58. what is a stretch reflex?
    when a muscle is stretched it fights back and contracts which maintains increased tonus, making it stiffer than unstretched muscle 
  59. tendon reflex:
    reflexive contraction of a muscle when its tendon is tapped (knee jerk - patellar reflex)
  60. reciprocal inhibition 
    reflex phenomenon that prevents muscles from working against eachother by inhibiting the antagonist
  61. withdrawl reflex 
    the quick contraction of the flexors and relaxation of the extensors in that limb
  62. what do sensory receptors respond to in somatic reflexes, viseral/autonomic reflexes
    • somatic- external stimuli
    • visceral/autonomic - internal stimuli
  63. what are the effectors for somatic and viseral reflexes
    • somatic - skeletal muscle 
    • visceral - smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
  64. what is the main difference between somatic and visceral reflex arcs
    visceral arcs have TWO neurons in the MOTOR PATHWAY
  65. Visceral pain afferents and somatic pain fibers travels along some of the same pathways contributing to the phenomenon known as?
    reffered pain

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