Grammar

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mckeownmd
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170847
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Grammar
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2012-09-15 02:38:59
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Grammar
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DELTA Grammar
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  1. Verb Phrase
     A verb phrase (or VP) is a syntactic unit composed of at least one verb and the dependents of that verb. 

    For example, the have been studying English in the sentence 'I have been studying English for 10 years'. 

    Verb phrases can therefore consist of a single-word main verb, a multi-word main verb, one or more auxiliary verbs and a main verb or two main verbs. 
  2. Auxiliary Verb
    Auxiliary verbs are verbs that have a grammatical function (and contrast with lexical verbs).

    For example, someone has stolen my bike. 

    In English there are two types of Auxiliary verbs: Primary Auxiliaries (be, do, and have), and secondary auxiliaries (the modal verbs such as can, could, should, and must). 
  3. Dynamic Verb
    A dynamic (or fientive) verb is a verb that shows continued or progressive action on the part of the subject.

    For example, The boy runs. 

    Dynamic verbs are the opposite of stative verbs which purely expresses a state in which there is no obvious action (to know, believe, suppose etc.).
  4. Stative Verb
    A stative verb is one that has undefined duration.

    For example, I think they want something to eat.

    Stative verbs are the opposite of dynamic verbs which show continues or progressive action on the part of the subject.
  5. Bare Infinitive
    The infinitive without to, as used with modal auxiliary verbs.

    For example, In the sentence I must go to the store now, the verb go is a bare infinitive.

    The bare infinitive is used as the main verb after the dummy auxiliary verb do, or most modal auxiliary verbs (such as will, can, or should). So, "I will/do/can/etc. see it."
  6. Past Participle
    The past participle is the form of the verb formed by adding -ed to the bare infinitive in regular verbs and doesn't show contrasts of tense, number, or person, and can't occur as alone as the main verb in a sentence.

    For example, played, talked, and looked.

    Irregular past participles can be divided into 3 types: type 1 (the past participle is the same as the past tense), type 2 (the past participle is the same as both the past tense and the bare infinitve), or type 3 (all three forms are different). 
  7. Present Participle
    The present participle is the form of the verb formed by adding -ing to the bare infinitive in regular verbs and doesn't show contrasts of tense, number, or person, and can't occur as alone as the main verb in a sentence.

    For example speaking, talking, playing.

    The present participle has the same form as the gerund, but the gerund acts as a noun rather than a verb or a modifier.
  8. Intransitive Verb
     An intransitive verb is a verb that has no direct object.

    For example, to die and to sleep.

    In contrast, transitive verbs can take one or more objects. 
  9. Imperative
    The imperative is used as a directive, ie. to get people to do things and are common in directions and instructions. 

    The imperative in English takes the base form of the verb (ie. not inflected for tense or person), such as enter, sit, or go. 

    The negative imperative is formed by placing do not (don't) before the imperative. 
  10. Passive
    Passive is used in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the main verb. That is, the subject undergoes an action or has its state changed.

    For example 'The man was arrested by the police'.

    In contrast, a sentence in which the subject has the agent role is called an active sentence, and its verb is expressed in active voice. For example, the police arrested the man.
  11. Phrasal Verb
    A phrasal verb is a combination of a verb and one or two participles (either an adverb or a preposition, or both). 

    For example, look up, look after, look up to.

    An extension of the concept of phrasal verb is that of phrasal noun, where a verb+particle complex is nominalized, such as standby, backup, onset. 
  12. Modal Verb
    A Modal Verb is a type of auxiliary verb used to express intrinsic and extrinsic modality. There are 9 pure modal verbs.

    For example, can, could, should, must, may, might, would, will, and shall.

    Pure modal verbs form their negatives with not, form questions by inverting the subject, and do not have third person -s, infinitives, or participles. 
  13. Modality
    Modality refers to the lexical and grammatical ways used by speakers to express their attitude to what they are saying. Modality can be extrinsic (the likelihood of a situation) or intrinsic (the necessity or desirability of a situation). 

    For example, Maybe he will pass the exam (extrinsic). I wish he would pass the exam (intrinsic).

    Modality can be expressed by the modal verbs (all of which have extrinsic and intrinsic modality).
  14. Progressive Aspect
    Progressive aspect is one of the two aspects in English (the other is the perfect), and is used to show that an event is viewed as being 'in progress'. 

    For example She is playing tennis.

    Since the progressive is used to describe something 'in progress' it is not normally used with verbs that only descrive states (stative verbs) such as be, like, want, see, think.
  15. Perfect Aspect
    The perfect aspect is one of the two aspects in English (the other is the progressive), and is used to show that an event is viewed as being 'connected to a point in time'. 

    For example She has played tennis.

    The perfect aspect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb have with the past participle.
  16. Semi-modal Verb
    Semi-modals are multi-word constructions that function like modal verbs to express modality.

    For example, had better, have (got) to, ought to, used to.

    Semi-modals differ from the 9 pure modal verbs in that they some take the second person -s, some form negatives using don't, and are followed by the infinitive not the base form.
  17. Infinitive
    The infinitive is the form of the verb with the infinitive marker to and the base form of the verb.

    For example to walk, to speak, to play.

    The pure modal verbs do not have an infinitive form 
  18. Zero Conditional
  19. First Conditional
  20. Second Conditional
  21. Third Conditional
  22. Reported Speech
  23. Aspect
    Aspect describes the way we view an action or state in terms of passing time.



    There are two aspects in English - progressive and perfect. 
  24. Tense
    Tense refers to the way the base verb form changes in order to place the event in a specific time frame. 

    For Example, strictly speaking in English there are only two tenses -  the present (he cooks), and the past (he cooked). 

    However, for teaching purposes a larger number of verb phrase combinations are usually referred to as 'tenses', giving a total of 8 in English
  25. Complement
    A complement normally follows a verb phrase (often the verb to be, to seem, or to appear).

    For example a complement can be an adjective (I'm hungry), a noun phrase (that was a lovely meal), a pronoun (Is this yours?), or a number. 

    A complement can also be the object of a sentence (e.g. walking makes me hungry). 
  26. Intrinsic Modality
    Intrinsic Modality refers to a range of meanings to do with how necessary or desirable the speaker/writer views the situation.
  27. Inflection
  28. Function
    The purpose of a verb in a context.

    For example, asking permission or apologising.
  29. Mood
    Mood is a grammatical term used for the imperative, infinitive, and subjunctive forms of a verb.
  30. Gerund
    The gerund is the use of a verb (in its -ing form) as a noun.

    For example, the verb "learning" in the sentence "Learning is an easy process for some".

    The gerund takes the same form as the present participle, but one is more noun-like and one is more vverb-like.

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