Lecture 1 cards

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kamato
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170948
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Lecture 1 cards
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2012-10-15 15:45:56
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environmental determ of health cards
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  1. What are the determinant factors of health?
    (4)
    • 1. biological (=hereditary)
    • 2. medical care
    • 3. lifestyle
    • 4. environment
  2. What are the leading causes of death in the USA?
    (top 5)
    • 1. cardiovascular disease
    • 2. cancer
    • 3. cerebrovascular
    • 4. accidental
    • 5. chronic lung disease
  3. Environmental hazards:
    Exposure to __________ accounts for _______...
    exmaples (5)
    • exposure to potentially hazardous agents accounts for many forms of environmentally associatated morbidity and mortality 
    • 1. biological
    • 2. chemical
    • 3. physical
    • 4. trauma
    • 5. psychological/psychosocial
  4. Biological agents:
    involve
    1. interaction of ...
    2. various....
    3. ____, ____, and ____ _______
    • 1. interaction of parasites and hosts
    • 2. various routes of transmission
    • 3. acute, clinical, asymptomatic disease
  5. Chemical agents:
    -mass or ability to engage in chemical reaction in the body
    -commonly found agents: (6)
    • 1. cleaning agents
    • 2. heavy metals
    • 3. pesticides
    • 4. petroleum products
    • 5. chemical drain opener
    • 6. Clorinated waste water treatment
  6. Physical Agents
    examples include: (6)
    • 1) Damage caused by transferring energy form, which causes the damage of cody cells. 
    • 2) ionizing radiation at high dose
    • 3) x-ray and nuclear power plant-ionzing radation
    • 4. hearing loss, hypertension, heart disease and stroke. 
    • 5) sun's ultraviolet radiation-skin cancer
    • 6) over exposure to rays-skin damage, severe illness
  7. Trauma can either be...
    1) ______ from _____ or _____
    2) __________ (e.g. ______ ______ syndrome)

    psychosocial factors:
    • 1) General (from accidents or recreational activity)
    • 2) Cumulative (i.e. carpal tunnel syndrome)

    personal, family, co-workers
  8. What were "revolutionary" strategies for disease prevention?
    (4)
    • 1. raising temperatures to "burn" infectious agents
    • 2. antiboitics to kill the organisms
    • 3. immunization/protective anti-body to kill organisms.
    • 4. control causative agents while they are in the environment
  9. What are humans' defense against disease?
    1. first line of defense
    2
    3
    4
    • 1. 1st line- environmental management
    • 2. preventive medicine
    • 3. public health and preventive medicine
    • 4. curative medicine
  10. Epi triangle
    (3)
    • pathogen
    • host
    • environment
  11. 2nd line of defense: preventive medicine :
    a) the primary barrier of the body is:
    b) mucous membrane __
    c) secretions of protective fluids...
    d) and....
    • a) skin
    • b) mouth
    • c) even eyes
    • d) strong physical condition=better immunity
    • -immunizations
  12. 3rd line of defense-
    a) phagocytosis...(meaning the...)
    b) immunity (you need)
    • a) blood system and lymphatic system (when a white blood cell eats pathodents)
    • b) need antigens and anti-bodies
  13. 4th line of defense: _____ such as
    1)
    2) _____ _______ (like ___, ____, _____)
    • 1) surgery
    • 2) corrective therapy - medication, radiation, gene
  14. Environmental Quality: a pressing task for the 21st century
    maintaining and improving environmental quality is a cruicial goal for modern science
  15. Healthy People 2010
    a) is a....
    b) was developed in...
    • a) a national health promotion and disease prevention initiative
    • b) built in 2000 by US DHHS
  16. Healthy People 2010 has 2 goals:
    1) to increase....
    2) to eliminate...
    • 1) to increase quality and years of healthy life
    • 2) to eliminate health disparities
  17. Healthy People 2010 focus areas...
    (up 6)
    • 1. access to qlty of services
    • 2. arthiritis, osteoporosis,
    • 3. cancer
    • 4. chronic kidney disease
    • 5. diabetes
    • 6.  disability
  18. Goal number 8 objective of healthy people 2010:
    Environmental Health: promote health for all through a healthy environment
  19. goal number 8 objectives include concerns with... (6)
    • 1. water quality
    • 2. toxic waste
    • 3. global environmental health
    • 4. infastructure surveillence
    • 5. healthy homes and healthy communities
    • 6. outdoor air quality
  20. Environmental threats:
    (5)
    • 1. trashon beaches
    • 2. hazardous wastes
    • 3.  air pollution
    • 4.  toxic chemicals
    • 5.  deforestation
  21. Leading health indicators (10)
    • 1. PA
    • 2. overweight and obesity
    • 3. tobacco use
    • 4. substance abuse
    • 5. responsible sex behav
    • 6. mental health
    • 7. injury and violence
    • 8. environmental quality
    • 9. immunization
    • 10. access to health care
  22. Environmental Health Practices
    • 1. water quality management
    • 2. water pollution control
    • 3. human waste disposal
    • 4. solid and hazardzous waste management
    • 5. rodent and insect control
    • 6. milk sanitation and food quality management
    • 7. air pollution and control
    • 8. occupational health practices
    • 9. radiological health control
    • 10. recreation/travel safety
    • 11. land use management
    • 12. noise control, housing, hygiene, and etc.
  23. Environmental Problems (5)
    • 1. overpopulation
    • 2. pollution
    • 3. depletion of resources
    • 4. change in global condition
    • 5. war
  24. Population and the Environment-3 Ps
    • pollution
    • poverty
    • population
    • (principal determinants of health worldwide)
  25. pollution definition:
    a ______ in the _______ of the ________ by the _______ of ____________
    a reduction in the quality of the environment by the introduction of impurities 
  26. 2 types of pollution
    • 1) organic wastes 
    • 2) synthetic chemicals 
  27. pollution (another definition):
    _______ of ______ ______ (i.e. petroleum and coal) that _______ ________ ________ into the ____________
    combustion of fossil fuels (i.e. petroluem and coal) that disperse greenhouse gasses into the atomosphere

    ( global warming, change insect vectors?)
  28. Population by continent
    worldwide
    Asia
    Africa
    Europe
    Latin Amato
    NorthAmerica
    • World: 6. 137 billion
    • Asia 3.7 billion
    • Africa 818 billion
    • Europe 727 bill
    • Latin America 525
    • Northamerica 316 million
  29. Trends in population growth:
    a) on june 1999...
    b) from 1931 ro 1974
    c) projection??
    • a) in 99 6 billion ppl on planet
    • b) from 1931 ro 1974 (43 yrs) the pop doubled 
    • c) projection to double again during the same interval (1974-2018)
  30. overpopulation in developing nations is leading to the ______ __________ __________ the _______ _________ of the __________
    leading to the human population exceeding the carrying capacity of the planet
  31. overpopulation is related to _________
    we may reach ___-_____ billion _____ the ______ _______
    • may reach 10-12 bill during the 21st century
    • related to urban crowding.
  32. population growth
    1) is _________ at an ________ ________
    2) threatens to _______ _________ _________
    3) may cause _______ ________ ________ and ______ in _______ ______ of the _________
    • 1) increasing at an exponential rate:
    • 2)threatens to overwhelm available resources
    • 3) may cause periodic food scarcity and famine in some areas of the world
  33. population dynamics refers to....
    -the ______ _______ __________ among the _____ of ________ that ________ the _________  _________ of the ________ as well as the _______ that ________ the _____ and ______ of __________ _________
    refers to the ever changing interrelationships among the set of variables that influence the demographic makeup of the population as well as the variables that influence the growth and decline of population sizes.
  34. causes of population growth (3)
    f
    m
    m
    • 1. increases in fertility (birth rates)
    • 2. reductions in mortality
    • 3. (regional) migration
  35. consequences of population growth: (4)
    u
    o
    f
    l
    • 1) urbanization
    • 2) overtaxing carrying capacity
    • 3) food insecurity
    • 4) loss of biodiversity
  36. Worldwide, the proportion of urban residents has consitently increased...
    in 1800
    2000...
    by 2030...
    • in 1800- 5%
    • 2000-50%
    • by 2030 66% expected
  37. Factors that lead to urbanization (5)
    i
    f
    e
    l
    e
    • 1. industrialization
    • 2. food availability
    • 3. emplyoment opportunities
    • 4. lifestyle consideration
    • 5. escape from political conflict
  38. Hazards of the Urban environment 
    1.
    2. 
    • 1. biological pathogens or pollutants
    • 2. chemical pollutants 
  39. Hazards of the Urban environment
    • 3.natural resources 
    • 4. physical hazards
  40. Hazards of the Urban environment
    • 5. built environment with negative consequences on physical or psycho-social health (over-crowding)
    • 6. natural resource degradations (water quality)
    • 7. national/global environmental degradation with more indirect but long-term influences.
  41. Carrying Capacity
    • 1. the population that an area that will support without undergoing environmental deterioration
    • 2. the carrying capacity of an environment tends to limit population size
    • 3. food availability, and infectious disease keep population in check. 
  42. Population Crashes
    if components of the human life support system are disrupted by overpopulation of the planet, the species, Homo Sapiens could suffer a population crashh
  43. Avian Influenza ( a consequence of crowding?)
    -outbreaks....
    • outbreaks on poultry farms in Asia
    • -cambodia, china, indonesia, japan, laos, malaysia, south kora, thailand and vietnam
  44. Avian Influenza ( a consequence of crowding?)
    -in 2004 ___ humans had been... and ....
    -in 2004 44 humans had been infected with the Avian flu and 32 died in Vietnam and Thailand
  45. Avian Influenza ( a consequence of crowding?)
    -cummulative ..... spread to ....
    Cumulative case fatality rate of 50-70% spread to continental Europe
  46. Infectious Disease Epidemics
    • high mortality of these strains**
    • 1.Avian influenza A H5N1 virus-outbreaks on poultry farms in Asia- health official ere concerned that the virus might mutate enabling human-tohuman transmission which would result in a pandemic
    • 2. Swine flue (H1N1 influenza) soread through North America to other parts of the globe
  47. Swine Flue
    1. concern that a large proportion .....
    2. seasonal influenza vaccine H1N1 strain ...
    3. during the summer and fall months of 2009-
    4. week ending october 24 2009-49 or 50 states
    5. worldwide (as of Jan 31 2010) more than ....
    • 1. concern that a large proportion of the poplation might be susceptible to infection with the virus
    • 2. seasonal influenza vaccine H1N1 strain might not provide protection
    • 3. during the summer and fall months of2009-influenza activity peaked
    • 4. week ending october 24 2009-49 or 50 states reported geographically widespread disease
    • 5. worldwide (as of Jan 31 2010) more than 209 countries and overseas territories or communicaties reported laborartory confirmed cases of pandemic influenze H1N1 2009 including at least 15,174 deaths!
  48. Poverty
    • 1. linked to population growth
    • 2. one of the well-recognized determinants of adverse health outcomes
  49. Significance of the Environment for Human Health
    1. exposure to ...
    2. examples of ... are ... (4) 
    • 1. exposure to potentially hazardous agents accounts for many of the forms of environmentally associated morbidity and mortality
    • 2. examples of hazardous agents are:
    • -microbes
    • -toxic chemicals-
    • -pesticides
    • -ionizing radation
  50. Scope of Environmental Health Problems
    • 1. environmental facotrs are thought to contribute significantly to many forms of chronic disease such as cancer
    • 2. cervical, prostate, and breat
  51. Scope of Environmental Health Problems
    1. large proportion of the ___________
    2. prevalence of and mortality from asthma in the US has increased in 
    3. high percentage of 
    4. degrading 
    • 1. large proportion of the burden of disease associated with environmental sources
    • 2. prevalence of and mortality from asthma in the US has increased in 1980 by 58% and 78% respectively
    • 3. high percetnage of US children with elevated blood lead levels-(mental probs)
    • 4. degrading air quality world-wide
  52. Environmental Risk Transition
    1. this term characterizes..
    2. before transition occurs...
    • 1. This term characterizes changes in environmental risks that happen as a consequence of economic development in less developed regions of the world
    • 2. before transition occurs (in developing countries): poor quality of food, air and water
  53. Environmental Risk Transition
    1. problems of ...
    2. society becomes more...
    3. examples include...
    • 1. problems of household risk are brought under control
    • 2. society becomes more developed causing a new set of environmental problems 
    • 3. examples include release of:
    • -acid rain precursors
    • -ozone depleting chemicals
    • -greenhouse gases
  54. Demographic Transition
    • 1. demographic transition refers to alterations over time in a population's fertility, mortality, and make-up
    • 2. developed societies have progressed through 3 stages that have affected their age and sex distributions
  55. Epidemiological transition
    • 1. describes a shift in the pattern of morbidity and mortality
    • 2. causes related to primarily to infectious diseases
    • 3. causes associated with chronic and degenerative diseases
  56. Environment
    the term environment refers to the complex of physical chemical and biotic factors (as climate, soil and living things) that act upon an organism or an ecological community and ultimately determine its form and survival.
  57. Environmental Health
    • addressses all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to the person, and all these related factors impacting human health
    • -it encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can potentially affect health. 
    • targeted to preventing disease and creating health-supportive environments
  58. Ecosystem
    an ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and the non-living environment interacting as a functional unit
  59. Ecological model
    proposes that the determinants of health (environmental, biological, and behavioral) interact and are linked over the life course of individuals
  60. careers
    • the field of environmental health provides numerous career roles and possible occupations
    • diverse functions in different forms and agencies-private industry.
  61. Industrial Hygenist
    responsible for control of hazards that may affect workers as well as hazards that may impact the community
  62. toxicologist
    • 1. the field of environmental toxicology specializes in the effects of toxic chemicals upon the environment and living creatures such as human beings and wildlife
    • occupational and industrial chemicals found in the workplace upon the health of the workers.
  63. environmental health inspector
    monitoring and enforcing government regulations for environmental quality
  64. occupational health physician/nurse
    • involved with the prevention and treatment of occupationally related illnesses and injuries
    • -investigate hazards in the work environment
    • 3. develop procedures for abatements of hazards 
    • 4. conduct health education programs.
  65. environmental health officer
    developed implements evaluates environmental health policies, programs, and issues and oversees the implementation and monitoring of environmental health legislation.
  66. Historical background:Greeks-Hippocrates
    • 1.Hipocratis was a Greek philosopher
    • 2. lived between 460 and 370 BC
    • 3. father of medicine
    • 4. role of environment as an influence on ppls health and health status in work "Airs, Waters, and Places"
  67. Hippocrates proposed
    that environmental and climate factors such as the weather, seasons and prevailing wings, the quality of air, water, and food nad ones geographic location were influential in causeing changes in human health.
  68. Occupational Health
    • 1500-1800s
    • toxic metal among miners
  69. Environmental History
    • post 1800
    • small pox vaccination
    • public health act in London
    • john snow
    • sanitary conditions in mass
    • walden by thoreau

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