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what is a policy?
-a ____ _____ or _____ of ______ _______ ______ ______ and in _____ of _____ ______ to ______ and _______ ______ and _______ _______
-a definite course or method of action selected among alternatives and in light of given conditions to guide and determine present and future desicions...
**or policy is...
a _____ _____ the _____ _____ and _____ _____ _____ of a _____ _____
a plan embracing the general goals and acceptable procedures especially of a government body
environmental policy is a _______ by an _______ (e.g. _______ such as _______, or _______) of its _______ and _______ in _______ to its _______ _______ _______.
a statement by an organization (e.g. public such as governemnt, or private) of its intentions and principals in relation to its overall environmental performance.
Environmental policy provides
a framework for action and for the setting of its environmental objectives and targets
Goals of Environmental Policy (3)
1) to reduce ________ ________ ________ from ________
2) to prevent/reduce the ________ ________ of ________ ________
3) to reduce ________ ________ ________
- 1) to reduce environmental damages resulting from pollution
- 2) to prevent/reduce the adverse effect of environmental hazards
- 3) to reduce human health risks
Principals of Environmental Policy Development:
1. P P
2. E J
3. E S
4. P P
- 1. precautionary principals
- 2. environmental justice
- 3. environmental sustainability
- 4. polluter-pays principal
______, ______ ______
(______ be ______ ______ an ______ ______ ______ of ______ to the ______, ______, or ______ ______...even if ______ ______ and ______ ______ are not ______ ______.
preventive, anticipatory, measures (should be taken when an activity raises threats of harm to the environment, wildlife, or human health...even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established.
Environmental Justice** very important-one of the oldest policy principals:
this ______ ______ the ______ ______ of all ______ in ______ ______ of ______ ______ ______, ______ of ______, and ______ ______.
- it is the _____ to be ____ for all _____ and _____ _____ the ______.
*_______ _______ could be the _____ of ______.
this concept denotes the equal treatment of all people in society irrespective of thier racial background, country of origin, and socioeconomic status.
--it is the goal to be achieved for all communities and persons across the nation.
*environmental hazards could be the result of inequality
environmental sustainability: adheres to the ________ ________ that "a ________ ________, and ________ ________ can be ________ with a ________ ________, ________ ________, and a ________ ________.
adheres to the philosophical viewpoint that "a strong just, and wealthy society can be consistent with a clean environment, healthy ecosystems, and a beautiful planet.
polluter pays principal:
means that the ________ ________ bear the ________ of ________ out the ________ ________ and ________ ________--to ________ that the ________ is in an ________ ________.
means that the polluter should bear the expenses of carring out the pollution prevention and control measures--to ensure that the environment is in an acceptable state.
Policy cycle...refers to the distinct phases involved in the policy making process which are:
1. d, f, r
- 1. problem definition, formulation, reformulation
- 2. agenda setting
- 3. policy establishment
- 4. policy implementation
- 5. assessment policy
Problem Definition, formulation, and reformulation
3. influential factors are: research and science, interest groups, public opinion, social and economic factors
problems must be:
solution must be:
*** need an...
- 1. define the problem (policy is necessary
- 2. develop alternative solutions-critical phase3. influential factors are: research and science, interest groups, public opinion, social and economic factors
- -major factors-successful policy implementation
- Problems: significant for health and environment
- Solution: realistic and practical
- **need an understanding of the issues.
Policy Cycle-agenda setting
3. impact factors:
- 1. list all the potential problems
- 2. set priorities-information on risks
- 3. impact factors:
- 1. budget: constraints
- 2. environmental problems: complexity
- 3. public support, involve the community, respect for cultural conditions
- 4. coordination with government agencies
Policy cycle-Establishment is....
impacting factors for establishment are:
Establishment is a process for formal adoption of policy program and procedures
- influential factors are:
- 1. availability of scientific data and information on the scope of risks associated with hazards.
- 2. limitations on ability to coordinate, assess and disseminate research information hampers efforts to
- 3. translate policy into effective programs services and risk
policy cycle-policy implementation
a) focus on...
b) often a neglected stage b/c
- a) achieving the objectives set forth in the policy decision, putting the policy into practice
- b) barriers arise from lack of governmental support
policy cycle-policy implementation
Factors that influence (5)
- c) factors that influence...
- 1. political/social contexts
- 2. research and science
- 3. interest groups
- 4. public concerns
- 5. social and economic factors
policy cycle-policy implementation
d) possible strategy for policy implementation (1)
- d) possible strategy...(economic incentives)
- i.e. market-based trading scheme--accumulation of credit for falling below assigned pollution limits)
a) refers to...
b) to facilitate assessment environmental policies...
- a) to the assessment of the effectiveness of the policy.
- b) environmental policies may incorporate environmental objectives, which are statements of policy intended to be assessed using information from a monitoring program
environmental objectives are:
are statements of policy intended to be assessed using information from a monitoring program
a) is an assessment for...
b) it is a process used to...
c) is conducted through....
- a) an assessment for the effectiveness of the policy
- b) process used to determine health risks and is closely alighned with the policy process through the balancing of economic and other costs with health and societal benefits that may accrue throguh specific policy alternatives
- c) an assessment conducted through a montoring program
Falconer has presented a model for policy development-->links between...
hazard--> risks --> impacts--> social cost
- hazards-chemical properties
- risk-exposure, species presence
- impacts-species vunerability-physical damage to the ecosystem
- social cost-preferences, values
the process of risk management involves....
theses are often determined by...
the process of risk management involves the adoption of steps to eliminate identified risks or lower them to acceptable levels...
often determined by a government agency that has taken into account input from the public
risk assessment - risk management paradigm
risk management paradigm--> formulate the problem -->define risk management objectives --> identify and evaluate risk management options --> risk management decision --> implment desicion --> develop environmental indicators --> monitor environmental public health
examples of risk management:
- licensing laws-require licensing and registration for new and existing chemicals; include
- standard setting laws (water standards guide assesment and policies--for exposure for chemicals used in specific situations)
- control-oriented measures --deal with explicitly identified chemicals, groups of chemicals, or chemical processess (design packages so that they are childproof
- monitoring-measures of the levels of an environmental toxins so that regulations can be enforced (monitoring smog)
risk management examples
require liceninsing and registration for new and existing chemicals
risk management examples
standard setting laws
establish standards for exposure for chemicals used in specific situations (e.g. Clean Water Act)
risk management examples
- deal with explicitly identified chemicals, groups of chemicals, or chemical processess
- example:--design packages so that they are childproof
risk management procedures examples
measures of the levels of an environmental toxins so that regulations can be enforced
e.g. monitoring programs for ozone and smog and for pesticide levels in foods.
risk management examples
- a) a process that reviews the potential impact of anthropogenic activity with respect to its environmental consequences
- b) example is a residential development that would increase water and air pollution beyond acceptable levels.
Environmental Impact assessment (EIA)
a process that .....
a process that reviews the potential impact of anthropogenic (e.g. human related) activity with respect to its environmental consequences (e.g. proposed construction project-Residential development).
health impact assessment (HIA)
a) refers to a method or procedure for
b) examples of projects that impact health are
a) describing and estimating the human health effects a project or policy may have on the health of a population
b) large dams, mines, power plants, airports, development corridors, urban re-development, climate, biodiversity, infrastructure planning
Case studies of environmental health policies: (4)
- 1) hoover dam
- 2) three gorges dam
- 3) epa strategic plan
- 4) control of pollution across international boundaries.
goals of EPA strategic plan
EPA 2009-2014 strategic plan
"targeted areas" of change:
*must be updated every 3 years
(tribal regions and reservations)
- 1) reduction of Greenhouse gas emissions
- 2) sustainable agriculture 3) impacts of global climate change
- 4) contaminants
- 5) import safety
- 6) improving program implementation in Indian countries 7) enforcement/compliance measurement approach
- 8) research stragetic directions and targets
- 9) environmental indicators, monitoring, and related information
Hawaii Environmental Health Regulation Agencies
- State DOH
- 1) Behavioral Health Administration
- 3) Health Resources Administration
- 2) Environmental Health Administration
- a) Compliance assistance office b) environmental planning office etc...
Some major environmental regulatory agencies:
- 1. us environmental protection agency (EPA)
- 2. national institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH)
- 3. agency for toxic substances and disease registration (ATSDR)
- 4) national institute of environmental health science (NIEHS)
a) major international agency that is responsible
b) provides leadership
- -major international agency that is responsible for environmental health at the global level
- -provides leadership in minimizing adverse environmental health outcomes associated with pollution, industrial development, and related issues
1. established in April in 1947 with over 192 countriesheadqurters in Geneva (Switzerland)
2. has over ___ regional offices
3. links to ____ _______ _____, _____ _______, and _________ _________.
4. regional office for Americas in ______
5. thousands of _________ ________ in the field-staff and consultants.
- 1. established in April in 1947 with over 192 countries
- headquarters in Geneva (Switzerland) and has over 6 regional offices has links to key colloborating centers, research institutes, and public/private organizations.
- -regional office for Americas in DC
- -has thousands of international experts in the field-staff and consultants.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
In July, ___ the _____ _____ and _____ established the EPA in response to the _____ _____ ____ for ______ ____ ____ and ______.
- In July, 1970 the white house and congress established the EPA in response to the growing public demand for cleaner water air and land
EPA mission is to ______ ______ ______ and the environment
to protect human health and the environment
EPA _______ and _______ _______ that _______ _______ _______ _______ by _______-mission is to protect human health and the environment
EPA develops and enforces regulations that implement environmental laws enacted by congress
EPA has ___ regional offices
Growth of the Environmental laws in the united states
- from 1950-2010 grew from 10 to 80.
- -momemtum in 1970s
Development of US environmental laws
- 1. Addressed pollution in the mid to late 20th century
- 2. Book Silent Spring by Rachel Carson talks about the problems with DDT and other pesticides and chemicals
- 3. River in Cleveland caught fire over a dozen times
- 5. Celebration of Earth day.
MAJOR US environmental health laws
- National Env Policy Act (NEPA) 1969
- Clean Air Act 1970
- Occupational Safety and Health Act 1970
- Endangered Species Act 1973
- Safe Drinking Water Act 1974
- Resource Convservation and Recovery Act 1976
- Toxic substances control Act 1976
- Clear Water Act 1977
- Comprehensive Env Response, Compensation and Liability Act 1980
- Federal insecticide, funicide and rodenticide act
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
1. responsible for...
2. created the .... act of ____ along with the _____
- 1. NIOSH is the federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
- 2. Created the occupational safety and health act of 1970 along with the Occupational safety and health administration.
Clean Air Act 1970
1. federal law that....
2. authorizes EPA to establish...
3. ammended in...
- 1. -comprehensive federal law that regulated air emissions from stantionary and mobile sources
- 2. -authorizes EPA to establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to protect public health and the environment--hazordous air pollutants.
- 3.. -ammended 2x in 1977 an 1990
- 4. goal-to achieve NAAQS in every state by 1975.
Clean Water Act CWA
1. purpose: establishes the
2. the first major US law established to address
3. Ammended in
4. Law became
- 1. purpose: establishes the basic structure for regulating pollutants discharges in the waters of the united States
- 2. the first major US law established to address water pollution in 1948-the Federal Water and Pollution Control Act
- 3. Ammended in 1972 and 1977
- 4. Law became commonly known as the CWA w/ amendments.
Clean Water Act
1. Give EPA authority to ....
2. maintained existing requirements to
3. made it unlawful to
4. funded the
- 1. Give EPA authority to implement pollution control programs (like wastewater standards)
- 2. maintained existing requirements to set water quality standards for all contaminants in surface waters
- 3. made it unlawful to discharge any pollutants from a point source into navigable waters, unless a permit was obtained under its provisions
- 4. funded the construction of sewage trament plants
Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974
- 1. Establised to protect the quality of drinking water in the US
- 2. authorizes EPA to establish mimimum standards to protect tap water
- 3. requires all owners or opertators of public water systems to coply with primary and health related standards.
Changing Bacterial Recreational Water Quality Standards
for marine waters:
for fresh waters:
- 1950-1970 1000 total coliforms/100ml
- 1972-1986 200 fecal coliform/100 ml
- 1986-2009 Health Based Epi
- for marine waters: 35 enterococci/100ml
- 7 enterococci for 100/ml in HAWAII
- for fresh waters:
- 33 enterococci for 100.ml
- 126 E. Coli/100 ml
Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974
1. To protect the
2. established a
3. authorizes EPA to establish
4. provided for
5. established public notification
6. set up preocedures
- 1. To protect the quality of drinking water in the US all surface and ground waters designed for drinking use.
- 2. established a national structure for drinking water protection activities
- 3. authorizes EPA to establish national, enforceable health standards for contaminants in drinking water
- 4. provided for public water system complainece through a federal-state partnership
- 5. established public notification to alert customers to water systems violations
- 6. set up preocedures to protect underground sources of drinking water
1996 SWA Amendment Highlights (from the book)
- 1. Consumer confidence reports
- 2. cost-benefit analysis
- 3. microbial contaminnant and disinfections byproducts
- 4. operator certification
- 5. public information and consultation
- 6. small water systems
- 7. source water asessment programs.
National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
1. one of the first laws ever written t
2. NEPA basic policy is to
3. environmental asessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) are required for
- 1. one of the first laws ever written that estb. the broad national framework for protecting out environment
- 2. NEPA basic policy is to assure that all branches of government give proper consideration to the environment prior to undertaking any major federal action
- 3. environmental asessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs) are required for federal activities (like airports, highways, military complexes etc.
environmental asessments (EAs) and environmental impact statements (EISs)
assessments of the likelihood of impacts from alternative courses of action
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) of 1996
1. federal regulation
2. pesticides must be
- 1. federal regulation of pesticide distribution, sale and use.
- 2. all pesticides distributed or sold in the US must be registered (licensed by EPA).
- 3. must prove that using the pesticide according to specfications will not general cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment
- 4. pesticides must be properly labeled.
- 5. requires users to register when purchasing pesticides
"unreasonable adverse effects on the environment"
- 1. any unreasonable risk to man or the environment, taking into account the economic, social, and environmental cost and benefits of the use of any pesticide
- 2. a human dietary risk from residues that results from the use of a pesticide or on any food inconsistant with the standards under section .... of the federal food drug and comestic act
Toxic Substances Control ACt (TSCA) of 1976
1. EPA has authority to
2. authority to
a) require ______ and
and c) issue _____
d) EPA can
e) maintain ....
- 1. Provides EPA with authority to require reporting, record keeping and testing requirements, and restrictions relating to chemical substances and/or mixtures.
- 2. various sections of TSCA provide authority
- a. require pre-authorization
- b. testing of chemicals
- c. issue significant new use rules
- d. EPA can ban both manufacture and import those chemicals that pose and unreasonable risk.
- e. to maintain the TSCA inventory (under section 8) which contains more than 83,000 chemicals.
Comprehensive environmental response, compensation, and liability act (CERCLA) 1980
1. provides federal...
2. EPA was given power to...
- 1. provides a federal "superfund to clean up controlled or abandoned hazordous waste sites as well as accidents, spills, and other emergency releases of pollutants and contaminants into the environment
- 2. EPA was given power to seek out those parties responsible for any release and assure their coperation in the cleanup.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 1976
2. addresses environmental problems that could results from...
3. RCRA focuses on ....
- 1. EPA controls hazardous waste from the cradle-to-grave. This includes the generation, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous wastes
- 2. addresses environmental problems that could results from underground storage tanks storing petroleum and other hazardous substances.
- 3. RCRA focuses on waste minimization and phasing out land disposal of hazardous wastes as well as corrective action for releases.
Endangered Species Act of 1973
1. provides a program from the...
2. maintains lists of endangered...
3. these include....
- 1. Provides a program for the conservation of threatened and endandgered plants and animals and th habitats in which they are found.
- 2. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) maintains a worldwide list of endangered species
- 3. These include: birds, insects, fish, reptiles, mammals, crsutaceans, flowers, grasses, and trees.
- 632 endangered species (326 plants)
- 190 threatened species (78 plants)
2 international environmentally related agreements and conferences
- 1. the basel conference
- 2. the Earth Summit 1992
The Earth Summit 1992
- Conference: united nations conference on envir and development
- host: brazil
- resulting doc: Agenda 21-the Rio declaration on environment and development... (Rio Declaration)-a guide for future sustainable development around the world . .