Teaching Knowledge Test Glossary

Card Set Information

Teaching Knowledge Test Glossary
2012-09-15 03:33:24
University Cambridge ESOL Examinations

Show Answers:

  1. Abbreviation
    A short form of a word or phrase, e.g. in addresses, Rd is an abbreviation of Road. See acronym, contraction.
  2. Abstract
    • adjective - Relating to complex thoughts and ideas rather than simple, basic, concrete concepts. A text or language can beabstract,
    • e.g. words to express thoughts, feelings or complex ideas, which cannot be seen
    • or touched, are oftenabstract words
  3. Academic
    adjective - Relating to schools, colleges and universities, or connected with studying and thinking
  4. Accuracy
    The use of correct forms of grammar, vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation. In an accuracy activity, teachers andlearners typically focus on using and producing language correctly
  5. Achievement noun, achieve verb, achievable adjective
    Something reached by effort; something done successfully. Something which is achievable for learners is somethingthey can succeed in.
  6. Acknowledge
    To show that you have seen or understood something, e.g. the teacher acknowledged the learner’s answer with agesture.
  7. ► Acronym
    A set of letters representing the first letters of two or more words, usually of a name or title. The letters arepronounced as a word e.g. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) radar (radio detection and ranging). N.B.Acronyms are different from initialisms such as BBC, CD where the letters are pronounced as letters.
  8. Action rhyme
    A classroom activity using a rhyme which learners perform with accompanying actions. See Listen anddo/make/draw.
  9. Activate previous knowledge
    To get learners to think about and to say what they know about a topic. Teachers activate learners’ previousknowledge when they are preparing learners to read or listen to a text. Research has demonstrated that whenlearners’ previous knowledge is activated, reading and listening comprehension is increased
  10. Active role
    When learners think about their own learning and what their own needs are and try to help themselves learn more,they are taking an active role
  11. Active voice
    In an active sentence, the subject of the verb usually does or causes the action, e.g. The captain scored the winninggoal.
  12. Activity-based learning
    A way of learning by doing activities. The rules of language used in the activity are looked at either after the activity ornot at all
  13. Adapt (material)
    To change a text or other material, so that it is suitable to use with a particular class.
  14. Adjective
    An adjective describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun, e.g. a cold day.
  15. A comparative adjective
    compares two things, e.g. He is taller than she is.
  16. A demonstrative adjective
    shows whether something is near or far from the speaker, e.g. this (near),that (far).
  17. An -ing/-ed adjective
    describes things or feelings. An -ing adjective describes things or people, e.g. Thebook is very interesting. An -ed adjective describes feelings, e.g. I am very interested in the book.
  18. A possessive adjective
    shows who something belongs to, e.g. my, our.
  19. A superlative adjective
    compares more than twothings, e.g. He isthe tallest boy in the class
  20. Adverb
    An adverb describes or gives more information about how, when, where, or to what degree etc something is done,e.g. he worked quickly and well.
  21. ► Adverbial
    A word, phrase or clause acting as an adverb e.g. in the sentence She cut the paper as carefully as she could,the underlined part is an adverbial.
  22. Affix verb, affixation noun
    A meaningful group of letters added to the beginning or end of a word to make a new word, which can be a differentpart of speech from the original word, e.g. interview, interviewer. Affixation is the process of adding a prefix or suffixto a word.
  23. ► Affricate
    A sound produced by stopping the air flow then releasing it with friction e.g. / tâ / , / dΩ /.
  24. Aids
    Aids are the things that a teacher uses in a class, e.g. handouts, pictures, flashcards. When teachers plan lessonsthey think about what aids they will need.
  25. Aim
    What the teacher wants to achieve in the lesson or in the course.The main aim is the most important aim, e.g. the teacher’s main aim in a lesson could be to teach thepresent perfect or develop listening skills.
  26. A subsidiary aim
    is the secondary focus of the lesson, less important than the main aim. It could be thelanguage or skills learners must be able to use in order to achieve the main aim of the lesson or a skill orlanguage area which is practised while focusing on the main aim.
  27. A personal aim
    is what the teacher would like to improve in his/her teaching, e.g. to reduce the time I spendwriting on the whiteboard
  28. ► Alveolar (ridge)
    The ridge at the top of the mouth between the teeth and the hard palate. Several sounds e.g. / t / , / d / aremade in this area.
  29. Analysis noun, Analyse verb
    • To examine or think about something in detail in order to understand it or get to know it better, e.g. analyse language:what
    • the form of the structure is and why it is being used in this way in this
    • situation. Teachers also analyse learners’style or performance.
  30. ► Anaphoric reference
    Reference to something that occurs earlier in the text; often achieved through use of pronouns or lexical chainse.g. in the text ‘Singapore is on the sea. It shares a border with Malaysia’, It refers back to Singapore.
  31. Anticipate (language) problems
    • When teachers are planning a lesson, they think about what their learners might find difficult about the language orskills
    • in the lesson so that they can help them learn more effectively at certain
    • points in the lesson. They may alsothink about how learners’ previous learning experience may affect their learning in a specific lesson.
  32. Antonym
    The opposite of another word, e.g. hot is an antonym of cold.
  33. Appropriacy noun, appropriate adjective
    Language which issuitable in a particular situation.
  34. Art and craft activity noun
    A classroom activity in which learners make something with their hands, such as an origami animal or a mini-book.
  35. Article
    An article can be definite (the), indefinite (a/an) or zero (-), e.g. I was at (-) home in the sitting room when I heard a noise.
  36. Ask for clarification
    To ask for an explanation of what a speaker means, e.g. What do you mean?
  37. Aspect
    A way of looking at verb forms not purely in relation to time. Aspect relates to the type of event and the way speakersview events, e.g. whether it is long or short, whether it is complete or not, whether it is repetitive or not, whether it isconnected to the time of speaking or not. There are two aspects in English, the continuous/progressive and theperfect. The continuous aspect, for example, suggests that something is happening temporarily.
  38. Assessment noun, assess verb
    When a teacher uses information on learners’ progress during a course to adapt their teaching and/or to givelearners feedback on their learning.
  39. Informal assessment
    When a teacher decides whether a learner is doing well or not, or whether a course is successful or not, by observing learners rather than setting a test or writing an official report or giving a grade.
  40. Peer assessment
    When learners give feedback on each other’s language, work, learning strategies, performance.
  41. Performance assessment
    Typically this involves observation of classroom performance to assess how well learners expressthemselves during specific tasks by checking performance against criteria. Teachers can evaluate if learnersachieved the purpose of the task.
  42. Portfolio assessment
    This is a type of formative assessment and also continuous assessment. It consists of a collection oflearners’ work done over a course or a year which shows evidence of development of their language skills.
  43. Self-assessment
    When learners decide for themselves how good they think their progress or language use is.
  44. Summative assessment
    A type of assessment done at the end of a course where the focus is on learners receiving a grade for their work rather than receiving feedback on their progress
  45. Assessment chart/Assessment profile
    A chart designed by the teacher and used for diagnostic purposes. The chart includes learners’ names andassessment criteria. The teacher uses it to monitor and record comments on learners’ progress and achievement inEnglish. The comments are based on observation of learners working during class time, and/or on samples of writtenwork done for homework
  46. Assessment criteria
    The qualities against which a learner’s performance is judged for assessment. For example, assessment criteria forjudging learners’ writing may be: accuracy of grammar, use of vocabulary, spelling and punctuation, organisation ofideas.
  47. ► Assimilation
    When a sound in connected speech becomes similar to a neighbouring sound e.g. in the sentence He grew upin Britain, the /n/ in ‘in’ is likely to be assimilated to / m / resulting in / ˆmbrˆtWn /.
  48. Assumptions
    When teachers think about what they believe their learners will or will not know or how they will behave in a particularlesson. For example, a teacher plans to teach the present simple using the context of jobs and daily routines. Theteacher may make the assumption that learners will know basic job vocabulary and so knows s/he will not need tospend time in the lesson presenting these words
  49. Attention span
    How long a learner is able to concentrate at any one time.
  50. Attention spread
    Attention spread relates to when and how teachers give equal attention to all of the learners in the class. This caninvolve encouraging quieter learners to participate and ensuring that more enthusiastic learners do not dominate.
  51. Authentic material
    Written or spoken texts which a first language speaker might read or listen to. They may be taken from newspapers,radio etc. The language in the texts is not adapted or made easier for learners or the language learning process.
  52. ► Back-channeling
    When a listener signals understanding, surprise, agreement etc. to a speaker as the speaker is speaking.
  53. ► Bilabial
    A sound produced with both lips e.g. / m / , / b /.
  54. ‘Can-do’ statements
    Sentences that describe language learners’ language use or an aspect of it on a scale of proficiency, e.g. This learnerCAN express simple opinions or requirements in a familiar context
  55. ► Cataphoric reference
    Reference to something that occurs later in the text; often achieved through use of pronouns or lexical chainse.g. in the sentence That’s what it is – a nuisance, That refers forward to nuisance.
  56. ► Causative passive
    A use of the passive to express the idea of making something happen e.g. She got her car washed; They hadtheir house painted; the causative is commonly expressed with the verb ‘get’ or ‘have’.
  57. Checklist noun
    A list of things that a learner or teacher needs to focus on or consider. Examples could include assessment checklist,
  58. resources
    checklist, lessonplanning checklist.
  59. Clarify verb, clarification noun
    • 1. To make clear what you mean.
    • 2. Clarify language. When teachers focus on form, meaning and pronunciation to help learners understand the useand rules of target language
  60. Class, learner profile
    A description of the learners and information related to their learning, including their age, ability, strengths andweaknesses in language and skills.
  61. Classroom management
    The strategies used by a teacher to organise the classroom, the learning and the learners, such as seatingarrangements, different types of activities, teacher roles and interaction patterns
  62. Clause
    A clause generally consists of a subject and a finite verb relating to the subject and any other elements, e.g. object.A clause can be a full sentence or a part of a sentence.

    • A clause can be a full sentence or a part of a sentence.
    • Main clause When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking.
    • Subordinate clause When the teacher arrived, the learners stopped talking.
    • Relative clause The learners who were sitting near the front stood up.
  63. Closed question
    A question which leads to a yes/no answer or another very short response, e.g. Did you come to school by bus? Yes.
  64. Cloze test
    A task-type in which learners read a text with missing words and try to work out what the missing words are. Themissing words are removed regularly from the text, e.g. every seventh word. A cloze test is used for testing readingability or general language use. It is different from a gap-fill activity, which can focus on practising or testing a specificlanguage point.
  65. Clue
    A piece of information that helps someone to find the answer to a problem, e.g. a teacher could give the first letter ofa word she is trying to elicit as a clue to learners to help them find the word.
  66. Cognitive (processes)
    The mental processes involved in thinking, understanding and learning.
  67. Coherence noun, coherent adjective
    When ideas in a spoken or written text fit together clearly and smoothly, and so are logical and make sense to thelistener or reader.
  68. Cohesion noun, cohesive adjective
    The way spoken or written texts are joined together with logical grammar or lexis, e.g. conjunctions (Firstly, secondly),lexical sets, referring words (it, them, this).
  69. Cohesive device
    A feature in a text which provides cohesion, e.g. use of topic-related vocabulary throughout a text, of sequencingwords (then, next, after that etc.), of referencing words (pronouns – he, him, etc.), of conjunctions (however, althoughetc.).
  70. Collaborate verb, collaborative adjective
    To work together. Learners often collaborate in class when carrying out tasks, which typically involves planning,creating, discussing, evaluating etc.
  71. Collocation noun, collocate verb,
    Words which are regularly used together. The relation between the words may be grammatical, for example whencertain verbs/adjectives collocate with particular prepositions, e.g. depend on, good at or when a verb like make or docollocates with a noun, e.g. do the shopping, make a plan. Collocations may also be lexical when two content wordsare regularly used together, e.g. We went the wrong way NOT We went the incorrect way.
  72. Colloquial
    Language normally used in informal conversation but not in formal speech or writing, e.g. Give Gran a ring, OK?
  73. Communicative activity
    A classroom activity in which learners need to talk or write to one another to complete the activity.
  74. ► Complement
    Words or phrases that complete the meaning of another word or a sentence e.g. in the sentence ‘Hegave the man a ticket’, ‘the man a ticket’ is the complement. In ‘Jane was unavailable’, ‘unavailable’ isthe complement.
  75. Complex sentence
    A sentence containing a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
  76. Components (of a lesson plan)
    The main parts of a lesson plan, e.g. aims, procedure, timing, aids, interaction patterns, anticipated problems,assumptions, timetable fit, personal aims.
  77. Compound
    Nouns, verbs, adjectives or prepositions that are made up of two or more words and have one unit of meaning,e.g. assistant office manager, long-legged.
  78. Comprehension
    Understanding a spoken or written text.
  79. Concept
    Idea or meaning.
  80. Concept questions, concept checking
    A concept question is a question asked by the teacher to make sure that a learner has understood the meaning ofnew language, e.g. Teaching the new grammatical structure ‘used to’, using the example – He used to live in Paris.Concept question – Does he live in Paris now? Answer – No.Concept checking is the technique of asking concept questions or using other techniques to check that learners haveunderstood a new structure or item of lexis.
  81. Concrete
    Relating to real or specific ideas or concepts. Lexis can be concrete, e.g. words for real objects like clothes, food,animals that can be seen or touched, or abstract
  82. Conditional (forms)
    • A verb form that refers to a possible or imagined situation. Grammar books often mention four kinds of conditionals:
    • First (Type 1) conditional – refers to present or future possible or likely situations, e.g. I will come if I can.Second
    • (Type 2) conditional – refers to present or future situations which the speaker thinks are impossibleor unlikely, e.g. I would play for West Ham United if they asked me.Third
    • (Type 3) conditional – refers to past situations that cannot be changed, e.g. I would have seen her if Ihad arrived earlier (but I didn’t so I couldn’t)
    •  Mixed conditional– is used when the speaker wants to refer to different time frames in one sentence,e.g. If I’d arrived on time, I wouldn’t have to wait now. If I’d arrived refers to the past and I wouldn’t have towait refers to the present.
  83. First(Type 1) conditional
    – refers to present or future possible or likely situations, e.g. I will come if I can.
  84. Second(Type 2) conditional
    refers to present or future situations which the speaker thinks are impossibleor unlikely, e.g. I would play for West Ham United if they asked me.
  85. Third(Type 3) conditional
    refers to past situations that cannot be changed, e.g. I would have seen her if Ihad arrived earlier (but I didn’t so I couldn’t).
  86. Mixed conditional
    – is used when the speaker wants to refer to different time frames in one sentence,e.g. If I’d arrived on time, I wouldn’t have to wait now. If I’d arrived refers to the past and I wouldn’t have towait refers to the present.
  87. Confidence noun, confident adjective
    The feeling someone has when they are sure of their ability to do something well. Teachers often do activities thathelp learners to feel more confident about their own ability
  88. Conjunction
    A conjunction (or connector) is used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences, e.g. I like tea but I don’t likecoffee because it’s too strong for me.
  89. Connected speech
    Spoken language in which the words join to form a connected stream of sounds. In connected speech some soundsin words may be left out or may be pronounced in a weak way, e.g. Is he busy  / ˆziÄbˆziÄ /.
  90. ► Connotation
    The associations of a word. These associations may come from a situation, person or culture. e.g. ‘garlic’ – insome countries garlic is thought of as health-giving and tasty; in others it is thought of as smelly andoverpowering. Because connotations are often subjective, they are not easy to learn. This example is terriblyspecific and is also cross-cultural. Connotation also explains the difference between words like ‘thin’ and ‘slim’ -or ‘house’ and ‘property’, which has a focus on language itself.
  91. Consolidate, reinforce
    To return to something in order to allow learners to understand and remember it more completely. For example,learners can consolidate a grammar point by doing extra practice.
  92. Consonant
    A sound in which the air is partly blocked by the lips, tongue, teeth etc. Any letter of the English alphabet whichrepresents these sounds, e.g. d  /d/, c  /k/.
  93. ► Consonant cluster
    Two or more consonants occurring together at the beginning or end of a syllable e.g. / eks / in/ eksáésaˆz / (exercise); / str / in / strŘ / (strong).
  94. Consult
    To get advice or information from someone or something, e.g. teachers and learners might consult a dictionary orgrammar book.
  95. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)
    An approach in which a foreign language is used as a tool in the learning of a non-language subject in which bothlanguage and the subject have a joint role.
  96. Content-based instruction, content-based learning
    An approach to teaching, traditionally associated with the US, in which non-native speakers, often from minoritylanguage groups, are learning the target language to enable them to integrate into mainstream classes.
  97. ► Content word
    A word which carries the main meaning; often contrasted with ‘function words’ which mainly perform agrammatical function and carry little meaning e.g. in the sentence ‘ The postman was carrying a very big bag.’ thecontent words are postman, carrying, very, big, bag. Content words are usually nouns, verbs, adjectives oradverbs. See function word
  98. Context
    • 1. The situation in which language is used or presented, e.g. a story about a holiday experience could be used asthe context to present and practise past tenses. Photographs can help to provide a context for a magazinearticle.
    • 2. The words or phrases before or after a word in discourse which help someone to understand that word.
  99. Contextualise
    To put new language into a situation that shows what it means. See set the scene, set the context.
  100. Contraction
    A shorter form of a group of words, which usually occurs in auxiliary verbs, e.g. you have = you’ve; it is = it’s.
  101. Contrast
    To compare the differences between two things.
  102. Contribute
    To give or add something, e.g. in the classroom, learners can contribute to a discussion by taking part and giving theirideas.
  103. Convey meaning
    To express or communicate meaning. Teachers focus on conveying meaning when they present new language.
  104. Co-operation noun, co-operate verb, co-operative adjective
    Working together and helping each other. In some group work activities learners co-operate to find the answer orsolve a problem
  105. ► Co-ordinating conjunction
    Conjunctions which link two main clauses or two other grammatical units which have the same grammaticalstatus. ‘and’ and ‘but’ are examples of co-ordinating conjunctions e.g. He was keen but lazy; He played footballand tennis.
  106. Core
    The most important, central or most basic part of something. See root word, base word.
  107. Echo correction
    When learners make a mistake, the teacher repeats the mistake with rising intonationencouraging learners to correct themselves, e.g.Learner: He don’t like it.Teacher: Don’t?Learner: He doesn’t like it.
  108. Finger correction
    A way of drawing attention to where a learner has made a mistake. The teacher countsout the words a learner has said on her fingers. The fingers represent words and the teacher can showclearly in which word (finger) the mistake was made. A teacher may use her fingers to show that a mistakehas been made with word or sentence stress, word order, grammar, pronunciation of sounds etc.
  109. Correction code
    A series of symbols a teacher may use to mark learners’ writing so that they can correct mistakes by themselves,
  110. Cross reference
    A note that tells the reader of a book to go to another place in the book to get more information, e.g. in a dictionaryentry for early it might say: early ─ arriving before the planned time. OPP LATE. This is a cross reference showingthe reader that there is information about late in another entry.
  111. Curriculum
    The subjects which make up an educational programme. They are taught differently in different contexts and indifferent cultures.
  112. ► Declarative form, declarative question
    The declarative form refers to the form of a sentence/utterance/clause that is used to make statements and giveinformation. A declarative question is a question with the grammar of a statement but said with intonation thatshows it is a question.
  113. ► Delexicalised
    That has (almost) lost its denotative meaning; usually used to describe verbs that combine with nouns to formmulti-word verbs e.g. to have a shower, to take a break, to make a difference.
  114. Determiner
    A determiner is used to make clear which noun is referred to, or to give information about quantity, and includeswords such as the, a, this, that, my, some, e.g. That car is mine.
  115. Diphthong
    A vowel combination which is pronounced by moving from one vowel to another, e.g. / aˆ / as in my is pronouncedby moving from / æ /to / ˆ
  116. Direct speech, question
    The actual words someone says, e.g. He said, ‘My name is Ron.’, ‘What do you mean, Sue?’, asked Peter.
  117. Discipline noun + verb
    The system of rules used to maintain control of learners in the classroom.
  118. Discourse
    Spoken or written language in texts or groups of sentences.
  119. ► Discourse marker
    A word or phrase that signals the function of the information that will follow/has just been given. e.g. in thesentence ‘She was interested in many subjects, for example, food technology.’ ‘for example’ signals that anexample will follow. In the sentence ‘By the way, they’ve become good friends.’ ‘by the way’ signals that theremark gives additional information not wholly coherent with previous information.
  120. Discriminate, distinguish
    To identify the difference between two or more things, e.g. sound discrimination is hearing the differences betweensounds, particularly minimal pairs, e.g. not/lot ; ship/sheep.
  121. Dominate verb, dominant adjective
    To have a very strong influence over what happens. If a particular learner is dominant in class, then other learnersget less chance to participate actively. If a teacher dominates, the lesson is teacher-centred
  122. Draft noun + verb
    A draft is a piece of writing that is not yet finished, and may be changed. A writer drafts a piece of writing. That is,they write it for the first time but not exactly as it will be when it is finished.
  123. ► Dynamic verbs
    Verbs referring to actions, events or bodily sensations and that express some kind of action. They can be usedin the progressive/continuous form e.g. His leg is hurting him; They’re eating their supper; It’s changing shape.
  124. Eclectic adjective
    An approach to language teaching in which the teacher uses techniques and activities taken from different methods.
  125. Edit verb
    To shorten or change or correct the words or content of some parts of a written text to make it clearer or easier tounderstand
  126. Effective adjective
    Having the intended or desired result.
  127. Elicit verb
    When a teacher thinks that some learners will know a piece of language or other information, s/he asks targetedquestions or gives clues to get, or prompt learners to give the target language or information rather than simplyproviding it to the class her/himself.
  128. ► Elision
    When a sound is left out in connected speech because it is followed by a similar sound e.g. in ‘he gave uppolitics’ the /p/ in ‘up’ is likely to be elided /higeˆv√pÅlˆtˆks/
  129. ► Ellipsis
    When a word, phrase or clause is left out in discourse because it is unnecessary for conveying meaning e.g. inthe sentence ‘ They made a big effort and ended up winning the prize,’ ‘they’ is left out before ‘ended up’because it is clear what the subject of this verb is.
  130. Emphasis noun, emphasise verb, emphatic adjective
    When special force or attention is given to a word or information because it is important, e.g. I want to start the lessonat SIX o’clock not seven o’clock.
  131. Enable verb
    To help someone be able to do something. To make something possible. For example, using a correction codeon learners’ writing enables learners to improve their own work.
  132. English-medium school
    A school in a non-English speaking country, in which all subjects are taught using English.
  133. A developmental error
    is an error made by a second language learner which could also be made by ayoung person learning their mother tongue as part of their normal development, e.g. I goed there last week (Iwent there last week).
  134. A fossilised error
    is an error that has become a permanent feature of a learner’s language, the error hasbecome a habit. Fossilised errors cannot easily be corrected.When a learner makes a slip they make a language mistake but they are able to correct themselves.
  135. Evaluation noun, evaluate verb
    To assess or judge the quality, importance or effectiveness of something. Teachers may evaluate learners’ progressor strengths and weaknesses
  136. ► Exophoric reference
    Reference to something that is outside the text; often achieved through pronouns or demonstrative adjectives,e.g. in the sentence ‘Pass me that piece of paper, will you?’ ‘that’ is exophoric, referring to something in thespeaker’s surroundings
  137. Exploit (material)
    To use material for a particular purpose.
  138. Factor
    A fact or situation which influences the result of something, e.g. the factors which influence whether someone learns alanguage successfully or not.
  139. False friend
    A word in the target language which looks or sounds as if it has the same meaning as a similar word in the learners’first language but does not, e.g. In French, ‘librairie’ is a place where people can buy books. In English, a library iswhere you may go to borrow books rather than somewhere where you go to buy books (a bookshop).
  140. Feature
    A feature of something is an interesting or important part or characteristic of it. Take, for example, the sentence I canplay tennis. In connected speech, can is pronounced / kWn / – the weak form / W / is a feature of this sentence.
  141. Functional exponent
    A phrase which is an example of a function and shows the purpose of what the speaker is communicating,e.g. Let’s ... This phrase is one way to make a suggestion. It is an example (or exponent) of the function ofsuggesting
  142. Gerund, -ing form
    A form of a verb functioning as a noun, which ends in -ing, e.g. I hate shopping.
  143. Higher-order thinking skills (HOTS)
    These are skills such as analysis and evaluation. They are often used in the classroom to develop reasoning skills,encourage enquiry and discussion and to develop creative thinking. For example, How can we change the design ofthe building to make it more fuel efficient? They involve open-ended talk.
  144. Homonym
    A word with the same spelling and pronunciation as another word, but which has a different meaning,e.g. bit (past tense of ‘bite’) and a bit (a little).
  145. Homophone
    A word which sounds the same as another word, but has a different meaning or spelling, e.g. I knew he had won;I bought a new book.
  146. Hyponym
    A hyponym describes a relationship between words. Hyponyms are words that are examples of a particulartype or category, e.g. ‘potatoes, carrots, peas’ are hyponyms of ‘vegetables’; ‘chair, table, sideboard’ arehyponyms of ‘furniture’.
  147. Idiom noun, idiomatic adjective
    A group of words that are used together, in which the meaning of the whole word group is different from the meaningof each individual word, e.g. She felt under the weather means that she felt ill.
  148. Indirect question
    An indirect question is used when someone wants to ask something in a more polite way, e.g. ‘I was wondering if you
  149. Integrated skills
    An integrated skills lesson combines work on more than one language skill. For example reading and then writing orlistening and speaking.
  150. Language frames
    Language frames are forms of support for writing and speaking at word, sentence and text levels or all three. Theyare types of scaffolding which help learners to start, connect and develop ideas
  151. Learner autonomy noun, autonomous adjective, learner independence
    When a learner can set his/her own aims and organise his/her own study, they are autonomous and independent.Many activities in coursebooks help learners to be more independent by developing learning strategies and focusing
  152. Learner characteristics
    The typical things about a learner or learners that influence their learning, e.g. age, L1, past learning experience,learning style.
  153. Auditory learner
    A learner who remembers things more easily when they hear them spoken. This type of learner may like theteacher to say a new word aloud and not just write it on the board
  154. Kinaesthetic learner
    A learner who learns more easily by doing things physically. This type of learner may like to move around ormove objects while learning.
  155. Visual learner
    A learner who finds it easier to learn when they can see things written down or in a picture. This type oflearner may like the teacher to write a new word on the board and not just say it aloud.
  156. Lexical approach
    A way of teaching language that focuses on lexical items or chunks such as words, multi-word units, collocations andfixed expressions rather than grammatical structures.
  157. ► Lexical chain
    A series of words related through a topic and that in discourse serve to provide cohesion, e.g.shop  shop assistant  counter  sale
  158. Denotation
    The dictionary definition of a word e.g. a chair is a piece of furniture with legs and we use it to sit on.
  159. Pragmatic
    The meaning given to an utterance by the situation in which it occurs e.g. ‘would you mind keeping quiet’ saidby a teacher to a student is likely to have the pragmatic meaning of a command rather than an enquiry aboutwillingness.
  160. Semantic
    The meanings of words or how they relate to one another e.g. as synonyms, antonyms.
  161. Method; methodology
    A way of approaching or doing a particular activity, e.g. use modern/new/traditional methods in language teaching; aset of methods, e.g. changes in the methodology of language teaching
  162. Model noun + verb
    A clear example of the target language for learners to repeat or write down or save as a record. If a teacher isfocusing on the target language of a lesson, s/he usually chooses a model sentence, which s/he writes on the board.The teacher often models the language as well, by saying it clearly before drilling the learners
  163. Modifier
    A word which adds further meaning to a noun phrase e.g. in the sentence ‘I’d like to try on that leather coat inthe window’, ‘leather’ and ‘in the window’ are modifiers.
  164. ► Morpheme
    The smallest unit that has meaning in a language. A morpheme is a base word or an affix, e.g. carefullycontains three morphemes: care, -ful, -ly; walked contains two: walk, -ed.
  165. ► Non-finite verb
    A part of the verb which does not show time or person, e.g. the infinitive (He needed to have a holiday), thepresent participle (Not understanding the question, he gave the wrong answer).
  166. A collective noun
    is a noun that refers to a group of people or things, e.g. the police, the government.
  167. A common noun
    is a noun that is notthe name of a particular person, place or thing, e.g. table, book.
  168. A compound noun
    is a combination of two or more words, which are used as a single word, e.g. a flowershop, a headache.
  169. A countable noun
    has a singular andplural form, e.g. book books
  170. A proper noun
    is the name of a personor place, e.g. Robert, London.
  171. ► Noun phrase
    A single word or a group of words that act as the subject, object or complement in a sentence or utterance. Itusually contains a noun and words occurring before or after the noun that modify it, e.g. in the sentence ‘Thetall shy-looking girl on the right is my sister.’ the underlined words make up noun phrases.
  172. ► Parallelism
    The repetition of grammatical structures within a text, e.g. ‘Enjoy the ride; Have a great time’ (imperative +object).
  173. Participle (past and present)
    ed and –ing forms of the verb, they are often used to make tenses or adjectives, e.g. I’m going home. (present participle); I haven’t seen him today. (past participle)
  174. Passive role
    When learners want to be taught and to acquire language without making their own decisions about their needs andlearning, they are taking a passive role
  175. Passive voice
    In a passive sentence, something is done to or happens to the subject of the sentence, e.g. They were taken to theairport by taxi.
  176. Phoneme
    The smallest sound unit which can make a difference to meaning e.g. /p/ in pan, /b/ in ban. Phonemes have their ownsymbols
  177. Plenary
    Part of a lesson when teachers discuss ideas with the whole class. A plenary is often held at the end of a lessonwhen teachers assess learning against the learning outcomes by providing opportunities to review what has beenlearnt.
  178. Controlled practice, restricted practice
    When learners use the target language repeatedly and productively in situations in which they have little or nochoice of what language they use. The teacher and learners focus on accurate use of the target language.
  179. Less controlled, freer practice, free practice
    When learners use the target language but have more choice of what they say and what language they use.
  180. Prefix
    A prefix is a letter orgroup of letters added to the beginning of a word to make a new word, e.g. clear – unclear
  181. Dependent preposition
    Many nouns, verbs and adjectives are followed by a particular preposition. Theseprepositions are dependent prepositions, e.g. interested in, depend on, bored with
  182. A demonstrative pronoun
    is a word which refers to a noun (phrase) and shows whether it is near or far fromthe speaker, e.g. this, that, these, those
  183. An object pronoun
    is a word which replaces an object noun or an object noun phrase, e.g. him, her.
  184. Personal pronouns
    are words, which are used instead of the name of a person, e.g. I (subject pronoun), me(object pronoun).
  185. A possessive pronoun
    is used to replace a noun and shows something belongs to someone, e.g. the houseis mine.
  186. A reflexive pronoun
    is used when the object of a sentence refers to the same person or thing as the subjectof the sentence, e.g. He cut himself.
  187. A relative pronoun
    introduces a relativeclause, e.g. the book which I’m reading is interesting.
  188. Quantifier
    A word or phrase such as much, few or a lot of which is used with a noun to show an amount, e.g. I don’t have muchtime; I have a lot of books about music.
  189. ► Semi-modal
    A verb that has a modal meaning but does not have all the grammatical features of modal verbs. Examples ofsemi-modals are ought to, be able to, used to.
  190. ► Subordinating conjunction
    A conjunction that links a main clause with a subordinate clause e.g. though, while, because.
  191. Superordinate
    A general word which is the name for a category/ type of thing, e.g. vehicle is the superordinate for car, bus,train, bike etc; job is the superordinate for postman, teacher, computer scientist, politician etc.
  192. Tense (12)
    • Future with going to I’m going to visit my aunt on Sunday. It’s going to rain.
    • Future with present continuous He is meeting John for dinner at eight tomorrow.
    • Future with present simple The plane leaves at 9.00 next Saturday.
    • Future with will or shall I’ll help with the cleaning. It will be lovely and sunny tomorrow
    • Past continuous, progressive I was watching TV all evening.
    • Past perfect continuous, progressive I had been studying for three hours so I felt tired.
    • Past perfect simple After I had phoned Mary, I went out.
    • Past simple I went on holiday to France last year.
    • Present continuous, progressive I am working in London now.
    • Present perfect continuous, progressive I have been studying for three years.
    • Present perfect simple I have known him for a long time.
    • Present simple He drives to work every day.
  193. An auxiliary verb
    is a verb used with other verbs to make questions, negatives, tenses, etc. e.g. be, do,have.
  194. The base form of a verb is
    the infinitive form of averb without ‘to’, e.g. go.
  195. The infinitive form
    is the base form of a verb with ‘to’. It is used after another verb, after an adjective ornoun or as the subject or object of a sentence, e.g. 'I want to study.’, ‘It’s difficult to understand.
  196. An irregular verb
    does not follow the same pattern as regular verbs. Each irregular verb has its own way offorming the past simple and past participle, e.g. go  went (past simple)  gone (past participle).
  197. A modal verb
    is a verb used with other verbs to show ideas such as ability or obligation or possibility. Theyinclude can, must, will, should, e.g. I can speak French, but I should study even harder.
  198. A phrasal verb
    is a type of multiword verb which is made up of a verb + an adverb particle, e.g. look after – Amother looks after her children.