Anatomy and Physiology Histology Ch 5

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toribloom
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170995
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Anatomy and Physiology Histology Ch 5
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2012-09-17 18:41:27
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Anatomy Physiology
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Anatomy and Physiology ch 5 Histology connect 5
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  1. ______ membranes line cavities that are exposed to the external environment.
    Mucous
  2. The abdominal cavity is lined with a type of membrane that is classified as a _____ membrane.
    Serous
  3. The four types of stratified epithelia are:
    • Transitional
    • stratified squamous
    • stratified columnar
    • stratified cuboidal
  4. ________ tissue fills spaces between other tissues, binds tissues to one another, and consists primarily of matrix with relatively few cells.
    Connective
  5. The function of simple epithelia is to allow rapic diffusion or transport.
    true/false
    True
  6. Which 2 tissues are described as excitable tissues because they are able to respond to outside stimuli by changing their membrane potential?
    • Muscular
    • Nervous
  7. A tissue sample cut in a slant is called?
    Oblique
  8. List the four primary tissue types.
    • Epithelial
    • muscular
    • connective
    • nervous
  9. An organ is composed of at least two different tissue types, joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.
    True/False
    True
  10. The clear gel portion of the extracellular fluid (matrix) that contains water, gases, minerals, nutrients, wastes, and other materials is called the _____ ____.
    ground substance
  11. Name the three types of muscle tissue.
    Skeletal
    irregular
    cardiac
    rough
    smooth
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  12. _________ is a circular, dense body that forms the site of attachment between certain epithelial cells, especially those of stratified epithelium of the epidermis, which consist of local differentiations of the apposing cell membranes. 
    Desmosomes
  13. The _____  is a tough fibrous layer that covers a bone as a whole.
    periosteum
  14. Four types of stratified epithelia are:
    • Stratified columnar
    • Stratified squamous
    • Stratified cuboidal
    • Transitional
  15. Tight junctions consist of...

    1. Membrane plaques of adjacent cells anchored together; there is a space between cell membranes

    2. Transmembrane cell-adhesion proteins around upper part of cell holding neighboring cells together.

    3. Consist of connexons surrounding a channel leading from one cell to its neighbor.
    2
  16. A muscle cell is also called a _____ ____.
    Muscle fiber
  17. Hyaline cartilage
  18. An ________ is another term for a fat cell.
    adipocyte
  19. Steps in tissue repair:

    Epithelial regeneration; fibrosis, remodeling phase

    Bleeding into the cut

    Formation of granulation tissue and fibroblastic phase of prepair

    Scab formation; macrophages become active
    Bleeding into the cut

    Scab formation; macrophages become active

    Formation of granulation tissue and fibroblastic phase of prepair

    Epithelial regeneration; fibrosis, remodeling phase
  20. A ___ junction is a communicating area of attachment between two cells that is formed by a ringlike connexon, which consists of six transmembrane proteins surrounding a pore.
    gap
  21. Endocrine and exocrine are types of  _____.
    glands
  22. A _____ junction is a region in which adjacent cells are bound together by fusion of their plasma membranes, whereas a ____ junction consists of connections forming a pore.
    tight, gap
  23. _________ are connecting proteins.
    desmosomes
  24. The intercellular junction called a __________ allows the flow of ions between cells, transmitting electrical exitation from cell to cell.
    gap junction
  25. ______ glands are exocrine glands that secrete both serous fluid and mucin.
    mixed
  26. A muscle cell is also called a _______.
    myofiber
  27. The _________ gives rise to the muscle and bone among other things.
    mesoderm
  28. _____ is the germ layer that gives rise to the epidermis and nervous system.
    ectoderm
  29. ______ is innermost layer of the primary germ layers.
    endoderm
  30. Ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm are the primary ____ layers.
    germ
  31. A large round cell with a peripheral nucleus describes an _____.
    Adipocyte
  32. Multilayered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be called a ______  _______.
    Stratified squamous
  33. ______ ____ are commonly found wedged between simple columnar epithelial cells.
    Goblet cells
  34. Hyaline cartilage is different from elastic or fibrocartilage because the fibers are not visible with normal stain.
    True/false
    true
  35. siple columnar epithelium of the digestive tract is characterized by:

    cilia
    fibroblasts
    dense microvilli
    a rich vascular supply
    dense microvilli
  36. Collagen fiber gives connective tissue great tensile strength.
    true/false
    true
  37. Formation of which tissue is the first step in tissue repair?
     replacement of destroyed tissue
    scar tissue
    fibrous connective tissue
    granulation tissue.
    granulation tissue
  38. Bone and cartilage matrix both contain blood vessels.
    true/false
    false, only bone matrix contain blood vessels.
  39. Cellularity –composed almost entirely of cells
    Special contacts – form continuous sheets
    held together by tight junctions and desmosomes
    Polarity – apical and basal surfaces
    (basement membrane)
    Supported by connective tissue –
    reticular and basal laminae
    Avascular but innervated – contains no
    blood vessels but supplied by nerve fibers
    Regenerative – rapidly replaces lost
    cells by cell division
    Epithelial Tissue
  40. Functions - Diffusion and filtration
    Present in the kidney glomeruli, lining
    of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and serosae
    • Simple squamous
    • Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped nuclei and sparse cytoplasm
  41. Function in secretion and absorption
    Present in kidney tubules, ducts and
    secretory portions of small glands, and ovary surface
    • Simple Cuboidal  
    • Single layer of cubelike cells with large, spherical central nuclei
  42. Goblet cells are often found in this
    layer
    Function in absorption and secretion
    Nonciliated type line digestive tract and
    gallbladder
    Ciliated type line small bronchi, uterine
    tubes, and some regions of the uterus
    • Simple Columnar
    • Single layer of tall cells with oval nuclei; many contain cilia
  43. Single layer of cells with different heights; some do not reach the free surface
    Nuclei are seen at different layers
    Function in secretion and propulsion of mucus
    Present in the male sperm-carrying ducts (nonciliated) and trachea (ciliated)
    Pseudostratified Columnar
  44. Thick membrane composed of several layers of cells
    Function in protection of underlying areas subjected to abrasion
    Forms the external part of the skin’s epidermis (keratinized cells), and linings of the esophagus, mouth, and vagina
    (nonkeratinized cells)
    Exfoliation – a separation of the top layers of epithelial cells –flake off
    Stratified Squamous
  45. Several cell layers, basal cells are cuboidal, surface cells are dome shaped
    Stretches to permit the distension of the urinary bladder
    Lines the urinary bladder, ureters, and part of the urethra
    Transitional
  46. Found throughout the body; most abundant and widely distributed in primary tissues:

    Connective tissue proper
    Cartilage
     Bone
     Blood
    Connective Tissue – Supportive tissue
  47.  Binding and support
    Protection
    insulation and storage
    Transportation
    Connective tissue
  48. Mesenchyme as their common tissue of origin
    Varying degrees of vascularity
     Nonliving extracellular matrix, consisting of ground
    substance and fibers 
    Connective Tissue
  49. Ground substance – unstructured material that fills the space between cells
    Fibers – collagen, elastic, or reticular
    Cells – fibroblasts, chondroblasts,
    osteoblasts, and hematopoietic stem cells
    • Structural Elements
    • of Connective Tissue
  50. Fibroblasts –
    Macrophages – 
    Leukocytes – 
    Plasma cells –
    Mast cells – 
    Adipocytes –

    secrete histamine and heparin
    white blood cells – neutrophils& lymphocytes
    phagocytes of connective tissue
     fat cells – found in smallclusters in connective tissue
    connective tissue proper
     produce antibodies
    • Fibroblasts –connective tissue proper
    •     
    • Macrophages – phagocytes of connective tissue

    •  Leukocytes – white blood cells – neutrophils
    • & lymphocytes

    • Plasma cells – produce antibodies
    • \
    • Mast cells – secrete histamine and heparin

    •  Adipocytes – fat cells – found in small
    • clusters in connective tissue
  51.  tough; provides high tensile strength – white fibers

    – long, thin fibers that allow
    for stretch – yellow fibers

    – branched collagenous fibers that form
    delicate networks

    Reticular 
    Elastic 
    Collagen –
    • Collagen – tough;
    • provides high tensile strength – white fibers
    • §    
    • Elastic – long, thin fibers that allow
    • for stretch – yellow fibers

    • Reticular – branched collagenous fibers that form
    • delicate networks
  52. Interstitial (tissue) fluid

    Adhesion glycoproteins – Bind tissues and
    cells together

    §    
    Proteoglycans – glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
    – chondroitin sulfate

    Functions as a molecular sieve through which nutrients diffuse between blood capillaries and cells
    Ground Substance
  53. “Universal Packing Material”

     Gel-like matrix with all three connective tissue
    fibers

     Fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, and some white
    blood cells

    Wraps and cushions organs

    Widely distributed throughout the body
    • Areolar connective tissue 
    • LOOSE CONNECTIVE
  54. Loose ground substance with reticular fibers
     Reticular cells lie in a fiber network
    Found in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and
    the spleen
    • Reticular connective tissue
    • LOOSE CONNECTIVE
  55. Matrix similar to areolar connective tissue with closely packed adipocytes

    Reserves food stores, insulates against heat loss, and
    supports and protects

     Found under skin, around kidneys, within abdomen, and
    in breasts

     Local fat deposits serve nutrient needs of highly
    active organs
    • Adipose connective tissue
    • LOOSE
  56. Parallel collagen
    fibers with a few elastic fibers

    §    
    Major cell type is fibroblasts

    §    
    Attaches muscles to bone or to other
    muscles, and bone to bone

    §    
    Found in tendons, ligaments, and
    aponeuroses
    • Dense Regular Connective
    • Tissue
  57. §    
    Irregularly arranged collagen fibers with
    some elastic fibers

    §    
    Major cell type is fibroblasts

    §    
    Withstands tension in many directions
    providing structural strength

    §    
    Found in the dermis, submucosa of the
    digestive tract, and fibrous organ capsules
    • Dense Irregular Connective
    • Tissue
  58. Amorphous, firm
    matrix with imperceptible network of collagen fibers

    §   Chondrocytes lie in lacunae

    §   Supports, reinforces, cushions, and resists
    compression

    §   Forms the costal cartilage

    §   Found in embryonic skeleton, the end of long bones,
    nose, trachea, and larynx
    Hyaline cartilage
  59. §    
    Similar to hyaline cartilage but with
    more elastic fibers

    §    
    Maintains shape and structure while
    allowing flexibility

    §    
    Supports external ear (pinna) and the epiglottis
    Elastic Cartilage
  60. Matrix similar to
    hyaline cartilage but less firm with thick collagen     fibers

    §    
    Provides tensile strength and absorbs
    compression shock

    §    
    Found in intervertebral discs, the pubic
    symphysis, and in discs of the knee joint
    • Fibrocartilage
    • Cartilage
  61. §    
    Hard, calcified matrix with collagen
    fibers found in bone

    §    
    Osteocytes are found in lacunae and are
    well vascularized

    §    
    Supports, protects, and provides levers
    for muscular action

    §    
    Stores calcium, minerals, and fat

    §    
    Marrow inside bones is the site of hematopoiesis
    Bone (Osseous Tissue)
  62. Red and white
    cells in a fluid matrix (plasma)
       
    Contained within blood vessels
       
    Functions in the transport of respiratory
    gases, nutrients, and wastes
    blood
  63. Branched neurons
    with long cellular processes and support cells

    §    
    Transmits electrical signals from sensory
    receptors to effectors

    §    
    Found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral
    nerves
    Nervous Tissue
  64. Long, cylindrical,
    multinucleate cells with obvious striations

    §    
    Initiates and controls voluntary movement

    §    
    Found in skeletal muscles that attach to
    bones or skin
    Skeletal Muscle
  65. Branching,
    striated, uninucleate cells interdigitating at intercalated discs

    §    
    Propels blood into the circulation

    §    
    Found in the walls of the heart 
    Cardiac Muscle or Myocytes
  66. Sheets of
    spindle-shaped cells with central nuclei that have no striations

    §    
    Propels substances along internal
    passageways (i.e., peristalsis)

    §    
    Found in the walls of hollow organs
    Smooth Muscle
  67. (programmed cell death) – the normal death of cells that have completed their
    function and are phagocytized by macrophages and other immune cells. 
    Apoptosis 
  68. ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
    germ layers
  69. ______ is where epidermis, nervous tissue, and sense organs develop.
    ectoderm
  70.  ________ is where connective tissue, muscle, bone, and the urogenital and circulatory systems develop.
    Mesoderm
  71.  ______ develops into the gastrointestinal tract, the lungs, and associated structures.
    endoderm

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