Module 2

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Module 2
2012-12-10 16:12:17

Definitions, etc.
Show Answers:

  1. Define Element
    A substance which cannot be spit into simpler substances by chemical means
  2. What are the four major elements of the human body?
    • (O) Oxygen
    • (C) Carbon
    • (H) Hydrogen
    • (N) Nitrogen
  3. Define Atom
    The smallest unit of matter which retain the properties and characteristics of the element.
  4. How much total body mass is Oxygen
    • 65%
    • Part of water and many organic (carbon-containing) molecules.
  5. What percent of body mass is Carbon
    • 18.5%
    • Forms backbone chains and rings of all organic molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids.
  6. What percent of body mass is Hydrogen
    • 9.5%
    • Consitutuent of water and most organic molecules; ionized form (H+) makes body fluids mor acidic.
  7. What percent of body mass is Nitrogen
    • 3.2%
    • Component of all proteins and nucleic acids
  8. Phosphorus (P)
    Component of nucleic acids and ATP (molecule used to store chemical energy), required for normal bone and tooth structure.
  9. Potassium (K)
    Ionized form (K+) is the most plentiful cation (positively charged ion) inside cells; needed for nerve activity.
  10. Sulfur (S)
    Component of some vitamins and many proteins.
  11. Chlorine (Cl)
    Ionized form (Cl-) is the most plentiful anion (negatively charged particle) in extracellular fluid; essential for maintaining water balance.
  12. Magnesium (Mg)
    Ionized form needed for many enzymes (molecules that increase the rate of chemical ractions in orgainsms.
  13. Iron (Fe)
    Ionized forms (Fe++ and Fe +++) are part of hemoglobin (oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells) and some enzymes.
  14. Trace elements
    Aluminum (Al), boron (B), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), fluorine (F), iodine (I), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn)
  15. Define Molecules
    Two or more atoms sharing electrons joined by a chemical bond.

    It can be two atoms of the same element, or atoms of different elements.
  16. Define Compounds
    Molecule that contains atoms of different elements.
  17. All biological materials exist in one of three states:
    Solid, liquid, gas
  18. Define Solids
    Are substances in which the particles are tightly associated with each other. Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume and are not very compressible.
  19. Define Liquids
    Contain particles that are interacting with one another, but much more weakly.  A liquid changes its shape to match the container in's in, so it's said to have an indefinite shape.  The volume is definite, and liquids are not very compressible.
  20. Define Gases
    Have widely spaced particles that are flying around, banging off of each other.  The particles don't interact much beyond these collisions.  Gases have an indefinite shape and indefinite volume.  Gases are very compressible.
  21. What is Potential Energy?
    like a coiled spring, is stored energy that is not (yet) able to do work.
  22. What is Kinetic Energy?
    is the energy movement.
  23. Reactions that store energy are called
    Endergonic (anabolism)
  24. When chemical bonds are broken, this energy is released and the reaction is
    Exergonic (catabolism)
  25. What is Anabolism
    Energy stored in chemical bonds
  26. What is Catabolism
    Energy released from chemical bonds. This energy can be turned into work.
  27. As particls move, they bounce around and distribute themselves all over.  This is one aspect of a property called
    Entropy: things become more disorganized in our houses.
  28. If there is no barrier, substances always move from where they are at high concentration to where they are at low concentration. This is called
    Diffusion (diffusion is a type of entropy)
  29. Define Specific Heat
    The amount of energy it takes to raise a gram of substance one degree of temperature.
  30. Liquids are better heat __________
  31. Metals are a better heat ____________
  32. How many specific heat calories (cal) in 1 food calore (Cal)
  33. Calories
    are one measure of specific heat.  A calorie is the amount of energy it takes to raise one gram of water one degree Centrigade