urinary 2.txt

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  1. Bedwetting or noctural enuresis
    • I'd like to start this flashcard off by saying that I'VE BEEN TYPECAST!!!!
    • *ahem*
    • when children wet the bed more than twice per month after age 5 or 6
  2. Treatments for bedwetting
    • counseling
    • urination regimen
    • urinary bladder conditioning
    • medications (demopressin nasal spray or imipramine)
  3. Neurogenic urinary bladder
    malfuntioning urinary bladder due to neurologic dysfunction or insult emanating from internal or external trauma, disease or injury
  4. Potential causes of neurogenic urinary bladder
    • stroke
    • cancer
    • dementia (Alzheimer's)
    • spinal cord injury
    • metabolic disorders (diabetic neuropathy)
    • multiple sclerosis
  5. Symptoms of neurogenic urinary bladder
    • urinary bladder spasms
    • failure to empty urinary bladder completely
    • lack of feeling of fullness or urgency
  6. Treatments of neurogenic urinary bladder
    • indwelling catheter
    • pelvic floor muscle exercises
    • medications
  7. Medications for neurogenic urinary bladder
    • anticholinergics (to relax overactive urinary bladder)
    • cholinergic agonists (activates nerves in underactive urinary bladder)
    • antibiotics
  8. Renal cell carcinoma (hypernephroma)
    causes 85% of all kidney cancers leading to enlargement then destruction of the kidneys
  9. Transitional cell carcinoma
    found in transitional cells lining the urinary bladder, ureter or renal pelvis
  10. Renal carcinoma
    rare disease of renal connective tissue accounting for less than 1% of all kidney tumors
  11. Causes of urinary bladder tumors
    • smoking
    • industrial chemical exposure
    • radiation and chemotherapy
    • chronic urinary bladder infection or irritation
    • parasitic infection
  12. Treatments for urinary bladder tumors
    • chemotherapy (single or combination drug)
    • fulguration (destroys tissue using an electric current)
    • immunotherapy (infusion of Bacillus Calmetter-Guerin solutino into the urinary bladder)
    • surgical removal of the urinary bladder
    • ileal conduit
  13. Urethritis
    inflammation of the urethra
  14. Causes of urethritis
    • UTI
    • STD
    • chemical exposure
    • "straddle" injury in men
    • urethral obstruction in women
  15. Acid-base imbalance
    minor deviation from normal range (7.35-7.45) can severly affect many organs and may lead to death (<6.8 or >7.8)
  16. Mechanisms that control blood acid-base imbalance
    • lungs (by exhaling CO2)
    • kidneys (by forming HCO3-)
    • bicarbonate-carbonic buffer system
  17. Acid-base disorders referred to as:
    • acidosis (acid accumulation or alkali loss)
    • alkalosis (alkali accumulation or acid loss)
  18. Acid-base disorders due to changes in:
    • arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2)
    • serum HCO3-
    • serum pH (<7.35=acidemia and >7.45=alkalemia)
  19. Compensation
    occurs when either the lungs (Co2) or kidneys (HCO3-) respond to cause of the disorder and pH levels remain in the normal range
  20. Decompensation
    occurs when neither the lungs nor kidneys compensate adequately for alterations in CO2 and HCO3- and pH levels move out of the normal range
  21. Role of lungs in acid-base imbalances
    • rapid, multi-step process involving release of CO2 from the lungs in concert with the respiratory center of the brain
    • -when CO2 accumulates in the blood, the pH of the blood decreases (acidity increases)
    • -brain regulates CO2 levels exhaled by controlling the speed and depth of the breathing
    • -as breathing becomes faster and deeper, exhaled CO2 levels and the pH of the blood increases
    • -by adjusting the rate and depth of breathing, the brain and lungs are able to regulate the blood pH minute by minute
  22. Role of kidneys in acid-base imbalances
    • affect blood pH by exreting excess acids or bases
    • unlike the lungs, compensation by kidneys generally takes several days
  23. Role of bicarbonate-carbonic acid system in acid-base imbalances
    involves carbonic acid (a weak acid formed from CO2 in blood) and HCO3- (the corresponding weak base) to minimize pH changes by adjusting the proportion of acid and base
  24. Metabolic acidosis
    develops when the amount of in body is increased through ingestion of susbtance that is metabolized to acid
  25. Causes of metabolic acidosis
    • diabetic ketoacidosis
    • drugs (azetazolamide, asprin, alcohol, iron)
    • lactic acidosis
    • loss of HCO3-
    • kideny failure
    • poisons (carbon monoxide, cyanide, ethylene glycol, methanol)
    • renal tubular acidosis
  26. Treatment of metabolic acidosis
    • depends on cause
    • insulin for diabetes
    • removal of toxic substance from blood
    • etc...
  27. Causes of repiratory acidosis
    • lung diseases
    • sleep-disordered breathing
    • drug overdose
    • neuromuscular diseases that impair breathing
  28. Treatment of respiratory acidosis
    • beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist/glucocorticosteroid
    • supplemental O2
    • mechanical ventilation
  29. Causes of metabolic alkalosis
    • loss of acid from vomiting or drainage of the stomach
    • overactive adrenal gland
    • diuretics
  30. Treatment of metabolic alkalosis
    replace water and electrolytes (Na+ and K+) while treating the underlying cause
  31. Causes of repiratory alkalosis
    • anxiety
    • aspirin overdose
    • fever
    • low O2 levels in the blood
    • pain
  32. Treatment of respiratory alkalosis
    • slow down rate of breathing
    • pain medications
    • breathing into a paper bag may raise blood CO2 levels by breathing CO2 back in after breathing it out
Card Set:
urinary 2.txt
2012-09-15 20:38:23
urinary diseases

urinary diseases part II
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