Etruscan and Roman Art (part 3)

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Etruscan and Roman Art (part 3)
2012-09-15 22:48:46

Etruscan and Roman Art (part 3)
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    • Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius
    • Era: High Empire, 175 CE
    • Location: Capitline Hill, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • larger than life gilded bronze done by the lost wax process
    • awkward proportion of man to horse - propaganda, super human grandeur - awesome power of god-like-Roman emperor
    • round ball or sphere represents the world - world domination
    • originally body cowering under horses foot maybe
    • gesture of greeting after an endeavor
    • last great military emperor
    • full of energy and vitality, movement of the horse, gesture of Marcus
    • on the Capitolian hill because it was chosen by a Catholic pope
    • 11'6" tall
    • Baths of Caracalla
    • Era: Roman Late Empire, 212-216 CE
    • Location: Rome, Italy 
    • Techniques:
    • brick faced facade covered by vaulted ceilings
    • 50 acres of land
    • symmetrical design along a central axis
    • facilitating the Roman tradition of taking sequential fridarium (cold), tepidarium (warm), then caladarium (hot) bathing
    • ability to supply water
    • firnaces to circulate hot air through hollow walls and floors
    • 1600 people at a time
    • domed section similar to Pantheon
    • concrete drum and dome
    • light enters through high groin vaulted ceilings
    • highly decorated, lavish
    • entire complex had gardens and exercise courts
    • Battle of the Romans and Barbarians
    • Era: Roman Late Empire, 250-260 CE
    • Location: Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • burial more common than cremation
    • bought by cardinal Ludovisi
    • chaotic battle scene between Romans and their enemies
    • moving from one general to another, lots of civil war represented
    • writhing intertwined bodies, emotional figures
    • carved evenly spread across them
    • dense, everything pushed forward
    • extreme rejection of classical perspective
    • separation from the ideal
    • horsemen with no helemt showing that he has no weapons - foreshortened figure, long legs and short torso
    • might be son of Trajan, doesn't need weapons, self assurance
    • similar to eastern works eastern mysterious religions
    • carved emblems - Persian god of light, truth, and victory over death on his forehead
    • Tetrarchs
    • Era: Roman Late Empire, 305 CE
    • Location: Venice, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • types because they were equal in power
    • made of porphyry, purple marble
    • attached to a corner of a building
    • four co-rulers of the empire
    • embracing each other represents the hoped for but unrealized serenity and harmony that they we supposed to bring to the empire
    • now represents fear of impdening disatster of the age
    • not well proportion, large heads and squat bodies
    • patterned drapery
    • no body contour
    • each one has a cruiass
    • grasping sheathed sword
    • the two who have beards are older figures
    • 4'3" tall
    • Arch of Constantine
    • Era: Roman Late Empire, 312-315 CE
    • Location: Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • waning creative power and technical skill, similar to late Greek period - most of sculpture stolen from everyone else's arch
    • commemorate defeat of his rival making him the absolute monarch - end of civil war
    • center arch flanked by two smaller arches
    • not quite engaged columns
    • heavy molding
    • bronze sculpture on top
    • inscription explaining his deeds
    • Hadrianic Reliefs
    • Era: Roman Late Empire, 117-138 CE
    • Location: Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • stole them from Hadrian's arch
    • take the head off the emperor and replace it with Constantine
    • perspective and proportion are off
    • statue of Constatine with figures surrounding
    • Frieze
    • Era: Roman Late Empire, 117-138 CE
    • Location: Arch of Constantine, Rome, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • stage like setting
    • placed with important figures
    • crowds of people on each side
    • replace Hadrian's head with Constantine's
    • big head and squat bodies
    • rigid figures, no action, statuesque
    • trying to pull away from Classical idealism
    • flattened relief with incised details
    • lined up heads - lacking realism
    • if there are gestures, they are repeated
    • Constantine the Great
    • Era: Roman Late Empire, 330 CE
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • attached to a wooden torso with a brick core
    • bronze accents
    • head and limbs are marble
    • weighs over 8 tons
    • simplification in detail
    • broad simple plains
    • frontal mask with enormous eyes
    • lose personality - overall authority
    • eternal youth
    • held an orb in left hand and with cross on top-
    • collasal likeness of the emperor to the god Jupiter
    • he is looking up at Christian God
    • too good to look at earth dwellers
    • hand was pointing up probably
    • 8'6" tall (either head or entire statue?)