Flowers, Inflorescences, and Fruits II

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Anonymous
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171113
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Flowers, Inflorescences, and Fruits II
Updated:
2012-09-16 02:10:55
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flowers inflorescences fruits
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Terminology on the structure of flowers, inflorescences, and fruits
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  1. Slipper-shaped, as in the lady-slipper orchid
    Calceolate
  2. Strap-shaped, as in the corolla of the ligulate flowers of many members of the aster family
    Ligulate
  3. The flower of many members of the pea family, with a broad upper petal (the standard), two lateral petals (the wings), and two lower petals (the keel petals)
    Papilionaceous
  4. Bilabiate flower in which the upper lip is arched and the lower protrudes into the throat of the corolla, as in the toadflax
    Personate
  5. Sterile, often antherless stamens
    Staminodes
  6. The two anther sacs that comprise the anther
    Thecae
  7. The stalk that holds up the anther
    Filament
  8. One end of the anther appearing terminal on the filament
    Basifixed
  9. Anther attached on its side to the filamet
    Dorsifixed
  10. Anther attached as in dorsifixed, but free-moving on the filament
    Versatile
  11. Stamens united by their filaments into a single group
    Monadelphous
  12. Stamens united by their filaments into two groups
    Diadelphous
  13. Stamens united by their filaments into several groups
    Polydelphous
  14. The structure formed by fused filaments
    Column
  15. Syngenesious
    Stamens united by their anthers
  16. An androecium of four stamens, with two of them on longer filaments, as in the mint and figwort families
    Didynamous
  17. An androecium of six stamens, four of them on filaments longer than the other two, as in the mustard family
    Tetradynamous
  18. Modifications of the anther apex, base or filament into horns, tips, tails, or other protuberances
    Appendaged
  19. With tail-like appendages
    Caudate
  20. The stamens extending from the throat of the corolla
    Exserted
  21. The stamens enclosed in the throat of the corolla
    Included
  22. A pollen mass, as in the milk-weeds and orchids
    Pollinium
  23. A raised fleshy ring or cushion formed by the fusion of staminodes or nectaries on which the stamens sit
    Staminal disk
  24. An enrolled, seed-bearing leaf
    Carpel
  25. Gynoecium comprised of a single carpel, as in the pea family
    Unicarpellate
  26. Gynoecium composed of two or more carpels attached separately to the receptacle
    Apocarpelous
  27. Carpels are fused together in the gynoecium
    Syncarpelous
  28. How many carpels are typically fused together in a syncarpelous gynoecium?
    Two, three, or four
  29. The upper portion of the carpel, the area receptive to pollen
    Stigma
  30. The midsection of the carpel, columnar or neck-shaped
    Style
  31. The base of the carpel, the seed-bearing portion
    Ovary
  32. The region lining the inner wall of the ovary, to which seeds or ovules are attached
    Placenta
  33. Combination of the stigma, style, and ovary
    Pistil
  34. Pistil made up of one unit
    Simple pistil
  35. Pistil made of two or more fused units
    Compound pistil
  36. The chamber within the ovary; there may be one or more
    Locule
  37. Immature seed
    Ovule
  38. The region or line along which the ovules are attached
    Placenta
  39. An interior wall which separates the locules in the event that two or more locules occur within an ovary
    Septum
  40. Position of the placenta
    Placentation type
  41. The placentae is located along the inner wall of the ovary
    Parietal placentation type
  42. The placentae appears at the center of the ovary, either at the midpoint of a single septum or at the place where all the septa fuse together
    Axile placentation type
  43. There is no ovary, but rather, ovules are all attached to a central column
    Free-central placentation type
  44. One ovule sits at the base of one locule
    Basal placentation type
  45. Series are superficially joined, but actually only touching
    Adherent
  46. Series are organically fused
    Adnate
  47. Series are partially fused in a somewhat irregular manner
    Coalesced
  48. Series are separate, not joined
    Free
  49. The structure resulting from the stamens and gynoecium in the orchids being organically fused (or adnated)
    Column
  50. Arising from the corolla, as in the stamens inserted within the corolla tube
    Epipetalous
  51. The structure resulting from the adnation of the stamens and gynoecium in the milkweeds
    Gynostegium
  52. The cup-like structure resulting from the fusion of the lower portions of the sepals, petals, and stamens; it is considered that each of these series is separately inserted on the rim of the structure, and mondelphy are not present
    Hypanthium
  53. System of notation used to detail the structure of a flower
    Floral formula
  54. What letter is used to denote "calyx" in the floral forumla?
    K
  55. What letter is used to denote "corolla" in the floral forumla?
    C
  56. What letter is used to denote "androecium" in the floral forumla?
    A
  57. What letter is used to denote "gynoecium" in the floral forumla?
    G
  58. An arrangement of one or more flowers on a floral axis
    Inflorescence
  59. Arising from the axil of a leaf
    Axillary
  60. A reduced leaf, particularly one associated with a flower or subtending the inflorescence
    Bract
  61. A small second-order bract
    Bracteole
  62. Fused involucral bracts subtending a flower, as in an acorn cup
    Cupule
  63. A set of sepaloid bracts
    Epicalyx
  64. A secondary series of bracts, often subtending a subunit of an inflorescence
    Involvucel
  65. An organized set of bracts, either separate from one another or fused to form a cup
    Involucre
  66. The supporting stalk of an individual flower in a multi-flowered inflorescence
    Pedicel
  67. The supporting stalk of a multi-flowered inflorescence or of a solitary flower
    Peduncle
  68. The central axis of an elongate inflorescence
    Rachis
  69. Lacking a pedicel
    Sessile
  70. Leafless flowering stalk
    Scape
  71. Having a scape
    Scapose
  72. A comparatively large and sometimes brightly colored bract which partially to completely surrounds an inflorescence
    Spathe
  73. Situated at the apex of a flowering stalk, as opposed to being axillary
    Terminal
  74. A flower which terminates a flowering stalk or which arises from the axil of a leaf
    Solitary
  75. Inflorescences no tcomposed of recognizable subunits which are themselves inflorescence types
    Simple
  76. On a solitary flower, the flower arising from the axil of a leaf along a stem
    Axillary
  77. On a solitary flower, it is situated at the apex of a flowering stalk
    Terminal
  78. An elongate inflorescence; the flowers sessile, dense or remote from one another
    Spike
  79. A small spike; the flowers inconspicuous and more or less hidden by bracts, as in grasses and sedges
    Spikelets
  80. A spike in which the axis is thick and fleshy; may be associated with an enveloping spathe, as in many members of the philodendron family (Araceae)
    Spadix
  81. A pendant or erect inflorescence in which the typically unisexual and apetalous flowers are more or less hidden by scaly bracts; often fall as a single unit; usage traditionally restricted to such woody plants as oaks, willows, birches, and walnuts
    Catkin
  82. A dense sphereical or rounded inflorescence of sessile flowers, as in the aster family (Compositae)
    Head
  83. A one-sided coiled inflorescence resembling a fiddlehead, as in most members of the borage family (Boraginaceae)
    Helicoid
  84. An axillary whorl of flowers radiating in many directions, as in several members of the mint family (Labiatae)
    Verticel
  85. An elongate inflorescence of pedicellate flowers on an unbranched rachis, the flowers dense or remote from one another
    Raceme
  86. A flat-topped or somewhat rounded inflorescence in which all of the pedicels arise from a common point at the apex of the peduncle, as in the onion and its relatives
    Umbel
  87. A flat-topped or somewhat rounded inflorescence in which the pedicels of varying lenghts are inserted along the rachis
    Corymb
  88. A cluster of three flowers on a common peduncle, the central flower the oldest and flanked by the others
    Dichasium
  89. A much-branded inflorescence with a central rachis which bears branches which are themselves branced
    Panicle
  90. A condensed, often cylindrical or egg-shaped panicle, as in the lilacs
    Thyrse
  91. A flat-topped or rounded inflorescence in which the peduncles (now called rays) of simple umbels (not called umbellets) are inserted at the apex of the peduncle, as in most members of the parsley family (Umbelliferae)
    Compound umbel
  92. An elongate inflorescence in which umbels are inserted along a rachis, as in the English ivy
    Raceme of umbels
  93. A corymb in which the branches terminate in heads rather than individual flowers, as in yarrow
    Corymb of heads
  94. A panicle in which the branchlets terminate in heads rather than individual flowers, as in many members of the same family (Compositae)
    Panicle of spiletes
  95. A panicle in which the branchlets terminate in spiletes rather than individual flowers, as in many of these cases
    Panicle of spikelets
  96. An infloresence in which spikletes are sessile along with unbranched rachis
    Spike of spikelets
  97. A flat-topped or rounded inflorescence made up of primary, secondary or tertiary dichasia; the central flower is terminal and is the oldeset, as in many members of the stonecrop 
    Cyme
  98. The blooming sequence of an inflorescence goes from the bottom to the top in a column and from outside to inside if the inflorescence is flat-topped
    Racemose and indeterminate

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