Lecture 1 - innate.txt

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jselim
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171128
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Lecture 1 - innate.txt
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2012-09-16 09:26:05
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  1. Commensals
    Normal flora – microbes that co-exist with humans without causing disease
  2. Pathogens
    microbes capable of causing human disease
  3. Colonization
    the establishment of proliferating microbes on the skin or mucous membranes
  4. Opportunists
    organisms that do not cause disease in healthy individuals but in immune-suppressed
  5. Infection
    the proliferation of microbes in tissues with the concomitant induction of the immune system.
  6. Disease
    the proliferation of microbes in tissues, immune response and resulting damage and/or impairment of bodily functions.
  7. Colonization
    organisms are on the mucous membrane
  8. Infection
    organism has moved into the body they has penetrated the skin
  9. Pathogen Carrier state
    A pathogenic organism but is in a state where you are carrying and replicating but do not present with disease
  10. Disease
    a state where there is damage to cells or tissues
  11. Innate Immunity - 5 mechanisms
    • Phagocytosis
    • Complement (Alternate Pathway)
    • Inflammation
    • Cytokine Release
    • NK cell killing
    • (0-96 hours)
  12. Macrophage
    • Long lived
    • Innate – Tissue
    • Phagocytosis
    • Cytokine secretion
    • antigen presentation (Adaptive)
  13. Neutrophil
    • short lived
    • Innate – blood
    • Phagocytosis
    • Granular release of antibacterial compounds
  14. 4 hallmarks of Inflammation
    • Rubor – Redness
    • calor – Heat
    • dolor – Pain
    • tumor – Swelling
  15. Histamine is released by
    Mast cells
  16. Granulomas
    body's attempt to confine non destroyed antigen, Chronic inflammation
  17. IL-1
    Fever
  18. IL-6
    Fever
  19. TNF-alpha
    Fever
  20. IFN alpha
    • Interfere with viral replication
    • activation of NK cells
  21. IFN beta
    • interfere with viral replication
    • activation of NK cells
  22. Primary immunodeficiency
    genetic defect causing deficiency
  23. Secondary Immunodeficiency
    immune suppressive agents (HIV)
  24. Neutropenia
    Decreased numbers
  25. Chronic granulomatous disease(CGD)
    • X linked or Autosomal recessive
    • NADPH affected
    • formation of granulomas
    • More susceptible to catalase oxide positive bacteria
    • treated with gama interferon and prophylactic antibiotics
  26. Leukocytes adhesion deficiency
    • CD18 defect -migration molecule
    • Autosomal recessive
    • impaired T,B cell function
    • infections with encapsulated bacteria
  27. Chediak higashi syndrome
    • Defect in lysosome fusion
    • reduced killing ability
    • can present as albino
  28. 4 characteristics of adaptive immunity
    • Specificity
    • Activation
    • Memory
    • self-nonself

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