Exam 1 AP Bio

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Exam 1 AP Bio
2012-10-22 15:44:28
Mr Brothwell Westminster High School

Exam 1 Objectives
Show Answers:

  1. Describe traits that define life
    • 1. Evolution
    • 2. Energy
    • 3. Interaction
    • 4. Information 

    • OR the long way
    • 1. cells
    • 2. inheritance
    • 3. energy usage
    • 4. communicate
    • 5. reproduce
    • 6. evolve
  2. Explain the hierarchy of living organisms
    • Not based on better or worse
    • Based on level of organism
    • Atom/Molecule => Cells => Tissues => Organs => Organism => Population => Community => Ecosystem => Biosphere.
    • It tells us about new characteristics from higher level that lower level cannot have (Emergent Property)
  3. Define the term emergent property
    • Sum > parts
    • New characteristics from higher level that lower level cannot have
    • Get something more than the parts.
  4. Give examples of emergent properties
    • 1.Atoms/Molecules are not alive
    • Cells are alive, but made from not alive things (atom/molecules) 
    • Molecules=> cell = life

    2.Organism (doesn’t do much by itself) => Population (sexual reproduction & evolution)
  5. Define the term evolution
    • Change in the genetic makeup of a population over time
    • Describe as Descent with modification
  6. Differentiate between the theory and fact of biological evolution
    • Fact (you can observe it) – example. Colony of ants that are insecticide resistant
    • Theory (you can explain it)- example: explaining the relationship with banobo and human
  7. Explain how natural selection leads to new species
    • Natural selection is hertiable traits that allow to compete for limited resources and survival of the species to reproduce
    • A group with a bad survival trait will be eaten and the trait will cease to exist
  8. Explain the phrase descent with modification
    • Modification = differences
    • Descent = Generation to the next Generation
    • As we go down the generations, we see differences.
  9. Differentiate between artificial selection and natural selection
    • Artificial selection: Domestication: Breed animals with certain traits favorable by the breeder
    • Natural selection: Traits favorable for survival and reproducing.
  10. List and describe basic evidences of evolution
    • 1. Mathematical Modes
    • – Hardy-Wienberg Equilibruim
    • 2. Molecular evidence
    • – Follow DNA/RNA/protein changes
    • 3. Anatomical Data
    • – Morphology, embryos
    • 4. Geologic
    • – geology, how the earth was built, and what’s trap between the earth (fossil)
    • 5. Ecologic
    • – behavior and locations
  11. Define the term convergent evolution
    • Meaning similar environment and different locations = the same result
    • Analogous structure
  12. Define the term adaptive radiation
    • The events of an explosion of biodiversity from a new environment with new niches (role in the environment)
    • Extinction: No dinosaurs causes mammal to raise
    • Islands: New land which we inhabit
    • Succession: Destory an environment and build a new one
  13. Define microevolution
    Evolutionary changes below the species level; change in the allele frequencies in a population over generations
  14. Describe how genetic variation is increased within a population
    • 1. Change in DNA which lead to change in phenotype = Mutation
    • 2. Sex (cause a whole lot of issues)
    • -Crossing Over (gene shuffle)
    • -Independent Assortment (don’t know how gene are lined up)
    • -Random Fertilization (don’t know what sperm meet with what egg) – built up variety
  15. Define the term population
    A group of individuals of the smae species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring.
  16. Define the term allele
    Any of the alternative verisons of a gene that may produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.
  17. Define the term gene pool
    a population’s collection of gene
  18. Define the term allele frequency
    The proability or percentage of having a certain allele
  19. Define the term phenotype
    Observable physical and physiological traits of an organism.
  20. Define the term genotype
    The genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism
  21. Describe the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
    • A series of conditions that define no evolution that requires math
    • If the requirements are met, then evolution is not occurring (Equilibrium)
  22. State the requirements for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
    • 1. No natural selection (counteract natural selection)
    • 2. Large population (counteracts genetic drift)
    • 3. No migration (counteracts gene flow)
    • 4. No net mutation (counteracts mutation)
    • 5. Random mating (counteracts sexual selection)
  23. Define the term fitness
    The rate of surviving and reproducing
  24. Explain the forms of natural selection
    • Directional: where the one side becomes the new average. Also reduce variations
    • Disruptive: where the two sides increase leaving the middle to decline. Also increase variations
    • Stabilizing: where the average increase its size
  25. Describe the genetic result of small population size
    • Genetic Drift: What happens in genetic drift is that the allele frequency change wildly
    • · Chaotic sexual reproduction
    • -Gene shuffling, crossing over, and independent assorting (Result is Don’t know what is going to happen)
    • -Sexual reproduction greatly overwhelms natural selection.        
    • -Elimination/Fixation = Genetic Drift (Don’t know what is going to happen)
  26. Compare and contrast the founder’s effect and bottleneck effect
    • Both are: genetic drift, contain a few individuals, and create new population that has different gene pool from original population.
    • Founder's effect: Occur with a few individuals that become isolated from a large population.
    • Bottleneck effect: Occur when the population is reduced by a natural disaster.
  27. Describe the genetic result of migration
    Move to a new location => population mix => new alleles => changing allele frequency => intro to evolution => natural selection
  28. Explain what mutations are
    Change in DNA/RNA/protein
  29. State how mutations help increase genetic diversity
    Change in DNA, RNA, and protein can bring new phenotype and genotype changes
  30. Define sexual selection
    • To seek optimal traits in partner
    • Males want many babies, while females want quality
  31. Differentiate between intersexual and intrasexual selection
    • ·Intersexual display (male show off to female and vice versa)
    • - This is where phenotypic traits are favored.
    • ·Intersexual fighting (2 males killing each other for a female)
  32. Define the term heterozygote advantage
    Advantages of having two different alleles and maintaining genetic diversity.
  33. Define macroevolution
    -is when one species splits to form new species.
  34. Distinguish between prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers
    • Prezygotic: to prevent fertilization
    • Postzygotic: have fertilization, but to prevent hybrid from being produce
  35. Distinguish between allopatric and sympatric speciation
    • Allopartic occurs through Founder's effect or when a group of a poulation moves away, colonize, and are isolated from the population.
    • Sympatric occurs through when the population is split into two group in which each colonize, and isolated from each other.
  36. Explain how allopatric speciation occurs
    When a group of a poulation moves away, colonize, and are isolated from the population. Cause by accident or physical isolation
  37. Explain how sympatric speciation occurs
    When the population is divided and each colonize, and isolated from each other. Cause by behavior and/or genetic isolation
  38. Distinguish between punctuated equilibrium and gradualism
    • Punctuated take short period of time
    • ·Cause by catastrophes and adaptive radiation

    • Gradual takes a long time
    • ·Cause by stable environment
  39. Differentiate between phylogeny, taxonomy and systematics
    • Phylogeny: the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
    • Taxonomy: a scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the the diverse forms of life
    • Systematics: a scientific discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationary
  40. State the various levels of biological taxonomy
    Domain -> Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> Species

    Hint: (Here is a memonic) Dumb King Philip Came Over From Germany Soaked
  41. Explain how to read a cladogram, or phylogenetic tree
  42. Define horizontal gene transfer
    The transfer of gene from one genome to another through mechanisms.
  43. Use HGT to explain the hypothesis of no universal common ancestor
    • Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT)
    • If genes were shuffling and moving to different branches of species, then why can't happen to the past. So we think the UCA's requirements were real, but it was just gene moving around making us think that UCA was possible
  44. Define parsimony
    Simplest explantion wins
  45. Explain how all cladograms are hypotheses
    Can be prove wrong with new data and can be reconstruct for a better understanding of patterns of descent.
  46. Describe the early earth’s atmosphere
    Reducing Atmosphere: (Reduction: Adding Electron) so No Oxxygen
  47. Explain the role of mass extinctions in the evolution of life on earth
    Adaptive Radition- New niches (roles) that lead to explosion of biodiversity
  48. State evolutionary events that occurred 4.6 bya,3.9 bya, 3.5 bya, 2.1 bya, and 1.5 bya
    • 4.6  billion years ago – Earth was formed
    • 3.9  billion years ago – Earth was cooled down and formed rocks
    • 3.5  billion years ago – We have the first prokaryotes arrived
    • 2.1  billion years ago – We have the first eukaryotes arrived (humans are eukaryotes)
    • 1.5 billion years ago – We have the first multicellular life
  49. Explain the rationale for RNA being the first genetic material
    • RNA is capable of-
    • Self assemble (Interaction)
    • Capable of catalysis (Energy)
    • Holding information (Information)
    • Can assemble proteins (Evolution)
    • Unstable; so it changes quicky (Evolution)
  50. Explain how biological molecules could have come into existence
    • Lightning storm with certain gases and water
    • Meteorite with organic compunds hiting Earth (Seeding hypothesis)
  51. Describe the assembly of protobionts and their evolution
    • Protobionts = Celluar precursors
    • Requirements: Able to reproduce and energy process (metabolism)