-Elimination/Fixation = Genetic Drift (Don’t know what is going to happen)
Compare and contrast the founder’s effect and bottleneck effect
Both are: genetic drift, contain a few individuals, and create new population that has different gene pool from original population.
Founder's effect: Occur with a few individuals that become isolated from a large population.
Bottleneck effect: Occur when the population is reduced by a natural disaster.
Describe the genetic result of migration
Move to a new location => population mix => new alleles => changing allele frequency => intro to evolution => natural selection
Explain what mutations are
Change in DNA/RNA/protein
State how mutations help increase genetic diversity
Change in DNA, RNA, and protein can bring new phenotype and genotype changes
Define sexual selection
To seek optimal traits in partner
Males want many babies, while females want quality
Differentiate between intersexual and intrasexual selection
·Intersexual display (male show off to female and vice versa)
- This is where phenotypic traits are favored.
·Intersexual fighting (2 males killing each other for a female)
Define the term heterozygote advantage
Advantages of having two different alleles and maintaining genetic diversity.
-is when one species splits to form new species.
Distinguish between prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers
Prezygotic: to prevent fertilization
Postzygotic: have fertilization, but to prevent hybrid from being produce
Distinguish between allopatric and sympatric speciation
Allopartic occurs through Founder's effect or when a group of a poulation moves away, colonize, and are isolated from the population.
Sympatric occurs through when the population is split into two group in which each colonize, and isolated from each other.
Explain how allopatric speciation occurs
When a group of a poulation moves away, colonize, and are isolated from the population. Cause by accident or physical isolation
Explain how sympatric speciation occurs
When the population is divided and each colonize, and isolated from each other. Cause by behavior and/or genetic isolation
Distinguish between punctuated equilibrium and gradualism
Punctuated take short period of time
·Cause by catastrophes and adaptive radiation
Gradual takes a long time
·Cause by stable environment
Differentiate between phylogeny, taxonomy and systematics
Phylogeny: the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
Taxonomy: a scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the the diverse forms of life
Systematics: a scientific discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationary
State the various levels of biological taxonomy
Domain -> Kingdom -> Phylum -> Class -> Order -> Family -> Genus -> Species
Hint: (Here is a memonic) Dumb King Philip Came Over From Germany Soaked
Explain how to read a cladogram, or phylogenetic tree
Define horizontal gene transfer
The transfer of gene from one genome to another through mechanisms.
Use HGT to explain the hypothesis of no universal common ancestor
Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT)
If genes were shuffling and moving to different branches of species, then why can't happen to the past. So we think the UCA's requirements were real, but it was just gene moving around making us think that UCA was possible
Simplest explantion wins
Explain how all cladograms are hypotheses
Can be prove wrong with new data and can be reconstruct for a better understanding of patterns of descent.
Describe the early earth’s atmosphere
Reducing Atmosphere: (Reduction: Adding Electron) so No Oxxygen
Explain the role of mass extinctions in the evolution of life on earth
Adaptive Radition- New niches (roles) that lead to explosion of biodiversity
State evolutionary events that occurred 4.6 bya,3.9 bya, 3.5 bya, 2.1 bya, and 1.5 bya
4.6 billion years ago – Earth was formed
3.9 billion years ago – Earth was cooled down and formed rocks
3.5 billion years ago – We have the first prokaryotes arrived
2.1 billion years ago – We have the first eukaryotes arrived (humans are eukaryotes)
1.5 billion years ago – We have the first multicellular life
Explain the rationale for RNA being the first genetic material
RNA is capable of-
Self assemble (Interaction)
Capable of catalysis (Energy)
Holding information (Information)
Can assemble proteins (Evolution)
Unstable; so it changes quicky (Evolution)
Explain how biological molecules could have come into existence
Lightning storm with certain gases and water
Meteorite with organic compunds hiting Earth (Seeding hypothesis)
Describe the assembly of protobionts and their evolution
Protobionts = Celluar precursors
Requirements: Able to reproduce and energy process (metabolism)