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The exchange of gas between an organism and its environment.
Small air sacs within the lungs where the exchange of gas takes place.
The force placed on the walls of a container by molecules of air; force exerted on Area
State that if a gas remains at a constant temperature and if you increase the size of the container the preasure will decrease. If you decrease the size of the container the opposite will occur and pressure increases; air will flow from positive to negative.
Another name for the rib cage.
What are the boundaries of the Support Structure of Respiration?
- Superior- first rib & clavicle
- Inferior- twelfth rib
- Lateral- ribs
- Anterior- sternum
- Posterior- spinal column
What are the 5 divisions of the Spinal Column and how many ribs are in each?
- Cervical- 7
- Thoracic- 12
- Lumbar- 5
- Sacrum- 5 fused
This does not have a body or spinous process.
This courses through the transverse foramen of the cervical vertebrae.
Mussles attach to spinous process of __________; ribs join at the transverse and costal processes; vertebrae join at the articular facet
What do ribs attach to?
There are twelve pairs; protect the lungs and heart; attach anterior to the sternum; attach posterior to the thoracic vertebrae.
How many ribs are true, false, and floating?
- True- 7
- False- 3
- Floating- 3
Flexible tube; hyaline cartilage rings; connected by a fibro-elastic mucous membrane; bifurcates; mainstem bronchi; provides air way; respiratory passageway
The right one has 3 lobes; the left one only has 2 lobes; has a mediastinum
The final division; greater surface area for respiration; air ducts; area for respiration; bronchioles; alveolar ducts; alveoli
About how many alveoli are in the lungs?
smooth contact for rough tissue; covers the lungs and inner thoracic cavity
The location of the heart
Occurs at rest; requires only one muscle= _____________
Occurs during physical activity; requires many more muscles= ____________
Quiet - Passive inspiration
Forced- Active inspiration
During ______________, vertical dimension of the thorax must be increased.
The primary muscle of inspiration; shape of an inverted bowl; attached to rib cage, sternum, and vertebral column
What are the three openings of the diaphragmatic hiatuses?
descending abdominal aorta; esophageal hiatus; the inferior vena cava
When the diaphragm contracts, all fibers contract together which means that all fibers will pull more-or-less equally on the central tendon. The diaphragm is pulled down as a unit. Contraction of the diaphragm has the result of pulling the central tendon down and forward. The diaphragm has the shape of an inverted bowl, pulling on the edges (muscle contraction) will draw the center down.
Innervation of the diaphragm is by means of the ______________.
The phrenic nerves originate, from the spinal nerves C3, C4, and C5 of both sids of the spinal cord
Other muscles help the diaphragm raise and expand the ribs, thus increasing the volume of the rib cage.
Reside between the 12 ribs of the thorax, providing the ribs with both unity and mobility; provide a unified surface of diagonally slanting striated muscle on all costal surfaces of the rib cage with the exception of region near the sternum. Contract and elevate the entire rib cage
The most significant respiratory muscles for speech; provide a significant proportion of the total respiratory capacity, also perform functions that are uniquely speech-related; account for most of the second dimensional change (anterior-posterior as dimsension)
External intercostal muscles
12 small thoracic muscles on the back of the ribcage wall
Levator Costarum (Brevis and Longis)